10/24/2019

Methodology

Methodology for Center for Jobs data is below.

Economic Health

Personal Income: Annual

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total annual personal income consisting of income that persons receive in return for their provision of labor, land, and capital used in current production as well as other income, such as personal current transfer receipts.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm.

Personal Income: Quarterly

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total quarterly personal income consisting of income that persons receive in return for their provision of labor, land, and capital used in current production as well as other income, such as personal current transfer receipts.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm

Total Civilian Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Includes all individuals who worked at least one hour for a wage or salary, self-employed, or working at least 15 unpaid hours in a family business or on a family farm.  Those who on vacation, on other kinds of leave, or involved in a labor dispute, are also counted as employed.  Data for Assembly, Senate, and Congressional Districts are estimated using the LAUS Census Share methodology using data from the 5-year American Community Survey (ACS) estimates.   This approach assumes that the rates of change for employment and unemployment within the larger geographic area are the same as those within the smaller geographic area being estimated.  Not seasonally adjusted. http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data/unemployment-and-labor-force.html

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month.  Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule:  http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data-release-schedule.html

Balance of Trade in Goods

Source: US Census Bureau

Total Exports minus Imports.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Includes goods produced/used within the state and goods assembled for subsequent export/transportation to other states. Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Change in Private Jobs (CEWNSA)

Source: See: Employment: Total Private (CES)

Calculated as change in total private employment from the prior month.

Change in Private Jobs (QCEW)

Source: See: Employment: Private (QCEW)

Calculated as change in total private jobs from the same quarter in the prior year.

Crude Oil Production

Source: US Energy Information Agency

Average barrels of oil produced per day, calculated as a running 12-month average. US total covers all domestic production, while state and regional levels cover only production on state territory and not in federal waters. Regional levels are calculated from the available state data in each month.

https://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_m.htm

Data available monthly, generally with a 3-month lag. Data subject to periodic revision. Data for Texas differs from that published by the Texas Railroad Commission due to differences in the treatment of incomplete and lagged data.

Total Civilian Employment (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Includes all individuals who worked at least one hour for a wage or salary, self-employed, or working at least 15 unpaid hours in a family business or on a family farm.  Those who on vacation, on other kinds of leave, or involved in a labor dispute, are also counted as employed.  Seasonally adjusted. https://www.bls.gov/cps/, https://www.bls.gov/lau/

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month.  Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Employment: Manufacturing (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Employment: Manufacturing (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US.  The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed.  An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base.  Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.  All data is for quarterly averages.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later.  Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Employment: Total Private (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Exports

Source: US Census Bureau

Total exports of goods from within the geographic area, from Origin of Movement (NAICS) State Export Data.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Includes goods produced within the state and goods assembled for subsequent export. Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Exports: US Share

Source: US Census Bureau

Share of total US exports of goods from within the geographic area, from Origin of Movement (NAICS) State Export Data. To eliminate seasonal factors, the percentage is calculated from a moving 12-month total.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Includes goods produced within the state and goods assembled for subsequent export. Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Gross Domestic Product

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced within an area, All Industry Total. GDP by state measures its “value added,” equivalent to gross output (sales or receipts and other operating income, commodity taxes, and inventory change) minus intermediate inputs (consumption of goods and services purchased from other U.S. industries or imported).

GDP by state excludes and national GDP includes the compensation of federal civilian and military personnel stationed abroad and government consumption of fixed capital for military structures located abroad and for military equipment, except office equipment. Data is subject to revision in the subsequent release and annual revisions. Release schedule: https://bea.gov/newsreleases/news_release_schedule.htm

Imports

Source: US Census Bureau

Total imports of goods to the geographic area, from State of Destination (NAICS) State Import Data.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Includes goods imported for use within the state and goods assembled for subsequent transportation for use in other states. Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Labor Force (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes. Not seasonally adjusted.

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data-release-schedule.html

http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data/unemployment-and-labor-force.html

Labor Force (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes. Seasonally adjusted.

https://www.bls.gov/cps/, https://www.bls.gov/lau/

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Natural Gas Production

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Average natural gas production in million cubic feet produced per month, calculated as a running 12-month average. US total covers all domestic production, while state and regional levels cover only production on state territory and not in federal waters. Regional levels are calculated from the available state data in each month.

Data available monthly, generally with a 3-month lag. Data subject to periodic revision.

New Residential Permits Cost (US Census Bureau)

Source: US Census Bureau

Total value for all residential units covered by building permits, from Census estimates with imputations for survey nonresponders.

Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

https://www2.census.gov/econ/bps/State/

New Residential Permits Cost

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Total value for all residential units covered by building permits.

Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/ https://www2.census.gov/econ/bps/State/

New Residential Permits: MFR (US Census Bureau)

Source: US Census Bureau

Number of multi-family units covered by building permits, from Census estimates with imputations for survey nonresponders.

https://www2.census.gov/econ/bps/State/

Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

New Residential Permits: MFR

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Number of multi-family units covered by building permits.

Monthly data is subject to revision in the semi-annual and annual updates.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/

New Residential Permits: SFR

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Number of building permits for single family homes.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/

Monthly data is subject to revision in the semi-annual and annual updates.

New Residential Permits: SFR (US Census Bureau)

Source: US Census Bureau

Number of building permits for single family homes, from Census estimates with imputations for survey nonresponders. Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

https://www2.census.gov/econ/bps/State/

New Residential Permits: Total (US Census Bureau)

Source: US Census Bureau

Total number of residential units covered by building permits, from Census estimates with imputations for survey nonresponders. Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

Monthly data is subject to revision in subsequent months.

https://www2.census.gov/econ/bps/State/

New Residential Permits: Total

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Total number of residential units covered by building permits.

Monthly data is subject to revision in the semi-annual and annual updates.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/

Non-Residential Permits

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Value of building permits issued for non-residential construction, consisting of hotels and motels, non-housekeeping shelter, recreational, churches, industrial, parking garages, service stations, hospitals, offices, public works, schools/education, retail, other non-residential buildings, structures other than buildings, non-residential alterations, and residential garages.

Monthly data is subject to revision in the semi-annual and annual updates.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/

Patents Issued

Source: US Patent and Trademark Office

As an indicator entrepreneurship and STEM activities, the number of US Utility Patents (inventions) issued by origin.

http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_utlh.htm

Real GDP

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

GDP value in chained 2009 dollars.

https://bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=70&step=1&isuri=1&acrdn=1#reqid=70&step=1&isuri=1

Value is published by BEA. Base differs from the real, $2007 values calculated for other indicators from the CPI. Data is subject to revision in the subsequent release and annual revisions. Release schedule: https://bea.gov/newsreleases/news_release_schedule.htm

Residential Alteration Permits Cost

Source: California Homebuilding Foundation

Value of building permits issued for residential alterations.  As such, the data covers only alterations done under permit rather than all alteration construction activity.

Monthly data is subject to revision in the semi-annual and annual updates.

CHF|CIRB California Construction Review report provided by the California Homebuilding Foundation, http://www.mychf.org/go/cirb/

Taxable Sales

Source: Board of Equalization

Quarterly sales of taxable goods and services in the state. Data is available quarterly for both the state and counties, generally with at least a one year lag.

http://www.boe.ca.gov/news/tsalescont.htm

Goods and services subject to tax have changed over time. Items not included in taxable sales include many food items including groceries, hot bakery items, candy, and bottled water; food products sold through vending machines; animal life, feed, seeds, plants, and fertilizer; sales to the US government; prescription medicine and certain medical devices; purchases with food stamps; and a range of other products and services. General consumption patterns have also changed, with a growing share of total consumer and business purchases being made for non-taxable services and goods. The full list of covered and non-taxable items is covered in Board of Equalization publications.

Total Farm Output

Source: US Department of Agriculture

Annual value of agricultural sector production including crop production, animal and products production, and farm-related income.

https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/farm-income-and-wealth-statistics/data-files-us-and-state-level-farm-income-and-wealth-statistics/

Data released in August each year, including revisions to prior year estimates.

 

Trade through State Ports: Exports

Source: US Census Bureau

Total exports of goods through all ports within the geographic area, from HS Port-level Data.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Trade through State Ports: Imports

Source: US Census Bureau

Total imports of goods through all ports within the geographic area, from HS Port-level Data.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Trade through State Ports: Total

Source: US Census Bureau

Combined total of imports and exports of goods through all ports within the geographic area, from HS Port-level Data.

http://usatrade.census.gov

Release schedule: https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/release_schedule.html

Trade through State Ports: US Share

Source: US Census Bureau

Relative share of total US imports and exports of goods, as an indicator of the relative competitiveness of each state’s ports and the related trade-supported jobs base. To eliminate seasonal factors, the percentage is calculated from a moving 12-month total.

Unemployment Insurance Claims

Source: US Department of Labor

Number of initial claims for unemployment insurance, not seasonally adjusted.

https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/5159report.asp; county data from Employment Development Department.

US number is total of states, DC, and Puerto Rico.

Unemployment Rate (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes.  Not seasonally adjusted.

http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data/unemployment-and-labor-force.html

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data-release-schedule.html

Unemployment Rate (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

The number of unemployed as a percentage of the Labor Force. Seasonally adjusted.

https://www.bls.gov/cps/, https://www.bls.gov/lau/

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Vehicle Registration

Source: Department of Motor Vehicles

Number of fee paid vehicle registrations for light duty vehicles, defined as a passenger vehicle used for the transportation of persons.

http://apps.dmv.ca.gov/about/profile/est_fees_pd_by_county.pdf

Data is published monthly. Additional data is available from DMV on commercial vehicles by county along with other vehicles covered by fee-paid registration.

Jobs & Wages

Avg. Annual Wage: Accommodation & Food Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Admin & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Construction

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Educational Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Finance & Insurance

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Government

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Health Care & Social Assistance

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Information

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Management of Companies & Enterprises

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Manufacturing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Mining

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Non-Classified

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Other Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Professional & Business Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Real Estate & Rental & Leasing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Retail Trade

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Total

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Transportation & Warehousing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Utilities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Avg. Annual Wage: Wholesale Trade

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Average Compensation: Private

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

As an indicator of the relative cost of government in each state, compares average compensation for private and for state and local government workers.  Compensation is a broader measure of labor remuneration, covering wages and salaries and employer contributions for employee pension and insurance (including health) funds and for government social insurance.

Employment: Accommodation & Food Services (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Admin & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Construction (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Construction (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Educational Services (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Education & Health Services (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Finance & Insurance (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Financial Activities (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Government (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Government (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Health Care & Social Assistance (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Information (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Information (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Leisure & Hospitality (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Management of Companies & Enterprises (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Manufacturing (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Employment: Manufacturing (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Mining (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Mining & Logging (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Non-Classified (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Other Services (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Other Services (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Private (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Employment: Professional & Business Services (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Professional & Business Services (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Real Estate & Rental & Leasing (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Retail Trade (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Total (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Total Nonfarm (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Total Private (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Trade, Transportation & Utilities (CES)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Employment covers the number of persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.

Employment: Transportation & Warehousing (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Utilities (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment: Wholesale Trade (QCEW)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is number of wage and salary jobs at all establishments reporting to the Unemployment Insurance program, representing about 99.7% of all wage and salary civilian employment in the US. The data is establishment based, meaning it counts the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment. All data is for quarterly averages. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Accommodation & Food Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained.  Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later.  Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Admin & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained.  Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later.  Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code. An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code. An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Construction

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained.  Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later.  Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Educational Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Finance & Insurance

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Government

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Health Care & Social Assistance

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained.  Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later.  Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Information

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Management of Companies & Enterprises

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Manufacturing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Mining

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Non-Classified

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Other Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Professional & Business Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Real Estate & Rental & Leasing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Retail Trade

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Total

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Transportation & Warehousing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Utilities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Establishments: Wholesale Trade

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Number of establishments is the number of individual physical locations reported by all firms within each NAICS code.  An employer may operate more than one establishment at the same location if the operations fall under distinctly different NAICS codes and if separate records are maintained. Similarly, employers may operate a number of different establishments at different locations.  The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Hourly Earnings: Construction

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data. Construction data for Delaware, DC, and Hawaii includes both construction and mining and logging. Current month data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. All data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/sae/790sced.htm

Hourly Earnings: Education & Health Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Financial Activities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Information

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Leisure & Hospitality

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Manufacturing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data. Construction data for Delaware, DC, and Hawaii includes both construction and mining and logging. Current month data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. All data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/sae/790sced.htm

Hourly Earnings: Other Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Professional & Business Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.  Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

 

Hourly Earnings: Total Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.  Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Construction data for Delaware, DC, and Hawaii includes both construction and mining and logging.  Current month data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month.  All data subject to revision in the annual updates.  Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/sae/790sced.htm

https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/sm/, https://www.bls.gov/ces/

Hourly Earnings: Trade, Transportation & Utilities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.  Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

 

Weekly Hours: Construction

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability.

Weekly Hours: Education & Health Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Financial Activities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Information

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Leisure & Hospitality

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Manufacturing

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Other Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Professional & Business Services

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Total Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Weekly Hours: Trade, Transportation & Utilities

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

 

Weekly Hours: Mining

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the average weekly hours worked of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services. Due to high seasonal variability, hours are shown as 12-month moving averages to provide more consistent comparability. Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Hourly Earnings: Mining

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment. Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.  Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Public Finance

State & Local Government Revenues: Charges & Miscellaneous General Revenue

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from own sources generated from charges (e.g., user fees, licensing fees) and miscellaneous general revenues by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Total General Revenues from Own Sources

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues by fiscal year from own sources generated from taxes, fees, other charges, and miscellaneous revenues.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Intergovenmental Revenues from Federal Government

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from federal subvention funds by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Other Education

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for other education and libraries.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Environment & Housing

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for natural resources, parks and recreation, housing and community development, sewerage, and solid waste management.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Other General Expenditures

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for miscellaneous commercial activities and other and unallocable activities.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Administration

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for financial administration, judicial and legal, general public buildings, and other governmental administration.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Public Safety

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for police, fire, corrections, and protective inspection and regulation.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Transportation

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for highways, air transportation, parking facilities, and sea and inland port facilities.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Interest on General Debt

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for interest on general debt.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Taxes, Personal Income Tax

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from personal income tax by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Taxes, Property Tax

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from property tax by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Taxes, Sales & General Use Tax

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from general sales and use taxes by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

Pensions: Funded Ratio

Source: Public Plans Data, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College

Average funded ratio for state and local pension systems within each geographic area, calculated from the actuarial value of assets and liabilities for the covered pension systems.

Pensions: Revenue Ratio

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Indicates the degree to which current state and local government general revenues are being devoted to past pension obligations rather than current service delivery.  For each fiscal year, calculated as:  total state and local government pension contributions divided by total state and local government general revenues from own sources (taxes, charges, and miscellaneous revenues).

Average Compensation: Local

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

As an indicator of the relative cost of government in each state, compares average compensation for private and for state and local government workers.  Compensation is a broader measure of labor remuneration, covering wages and salaries and employer contributions for employee pension and insurance (including health) funds and for government social insurance.

Average Compensation: Private

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

As an indicator of the relative cost of government in each state, compares average compensation for private and for state and local government workers.  Compensation is a broader measure of labor remuneration, covering wages and salaries and employer contributions for employee pension and insurance (including health) funds and for government social insurance.

Average Compensation: State

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

As an indicator of the relative cost of government in each state, compares average compensation for private and for state and local government workers.  Compensation is a broader measure of labor remuneration, covering wages and salaries and employer contributions for employee pension and insurance (including health) funds and for government social insurance.

CIT Receipts: Income

Source: Franchise Tax Board

Total income from All Reporting returns for state Corporation Income Tax for the tax year.

Data for state from Franchise Tax Board annual report, https://www.ftb.ca.gov/aboutFTB/data-statistics.shtml/. Data for counties, regions, and legislative districts estimated from zip code data provided by the Statistical Research & Modeling Section of the Franchise Tax Board, with assistance through Board of Equalization Boardmember George Runner’s office. The zip code data was aggregated by legislative district and county based on zip code equivalence files provided to FTB by the Center.

For counties, regions, and legislative districts, the data shown covers only returns that could be allocated within the state. The summation of these geographic areas differ from the state totals due to the following factors: (1) additional returns are filed by out of state individuals for income earned within California, (2) a relatively small number of returns are unallocated by geographic area, and (3) some of the returns are not disclosable by zip code or county level.   These amounts are included with the state data but are not allocated by the various geographic regions.

CIT Receipts: Tax Assessed

Source: Franchise Tax Board

Total tax liability from All Reporting returns for state Corporation Income Tax for the tax year.

Data for state from Franchise Tax Board annual report, https://www.ftb.ca.gov/aboutFTB/data-statistics.shtml/. Data for counties, regions, and legislative districts estimated from zip code data provided by the Statistical Research & Modeling Section of the Franchise Tax Board, with assistance through Board of Equalization Boardmember George Runner’s office. The zip code data was aggregated by legislative district and county based on zip code equivalence files provided to FTB by the Center.

For counties, regions, and legislative districts, the data shown covers only returns that could be allocated within the state. The summation of these geographic areas differ from the state totals due to the following factors: (1) additional returns are filed by out of state individuals for income earned within California, (2) a relatively small number of returns are unallocated by geographic area, and (3) some of the returns are not disclosable by zip code or county level. These amounts are included with the state data but are not allocated by the various geographic regions.

Debt Outstanding

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government short term and long term debt outstanding at the end of the fiscal year.

Debt: State Pensions

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state pension obligations at the end of the fiscal year.

PIT Receipts: AGI

Source: Franchise Tax Board

Adjusted gross income from state personal income tax returns filed for the tax year.

Data for state, counties, and regions from Franchise Tax Board annual report, https://www.ftb.ca.gov/aboutFTB/data-statistics.shtml/. Data for legislative districts estimated from annual zip code data.

For counties, regions, and legislative districts, the data shown covers only returns that could be allocated within the state. The summation of these geographic areas differ from the state totals due to the following factors: (1) additional returns are filed by out of state individuals for income earned within California, (2) a relatively small number of returns are unallocated by geographic area, and (3) some of the returns are not disclosable by zip code or county level.   These amounts are included with the state data but are not allocated by the various geographic regions.

PIT Receipts: Tax Liability

Source: Franchise Tax Board

Total tax liability from state personal income tax returns filed for the tax year.

Data for state, counties, and regions from Franchise Tax Board annual report, https://www.ftb.ca.gov/aboutFTB/data-statistics.shtml/. Data for legislative districts estimated from annual zip code data.

For counties, regions, and legislative districts, the data shown covers only returns that could be allocated within the state. The summation of these geographic areas differ from the state totals due to the following factors: (1) additional returns are filed by out of state individuals for income earned within California, (2) a relatively small number of returns are unallocated by geographic area, and (3) some of the returns are not disclosable by zip code or county level.   These amounts are included with the state data but are not allocated by the various geographic regions.

S&P 500

Source: Federal Reserve Economic Data

The S&P 500 Index is a broad index tracking the large cap US equities market. The index covers 500 leading companies on both the NYSE and NASDAQ, and accounts for about 75% of the US equities. The Index incorporates only prices, and is not a total return index that also covers dividends. As an indicator, this measure reflects general conditions affecting public revenues in those states with volatile tax structures that are heavily reliant on capital gains. The Index incorporates only prices, and is not a total return index that also covers dividends.

Average monthly index from the Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED) data bank maintained by the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank, https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/SP500#0.

The Index incorporates only prices, and is not a total return index that also covers dividends.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Capital Outlay: Construction

Source: US Census Bureau

State and local government expenditures for the construction of new or rehabilitation of existing physical assets and infrastructure by fiscal year.  Does not include repairs (which are treated as an operational expense) and capital outlays for other than construction.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government General Expenditures: Elementary & Secondary Education

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for elementary and secondary education.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Higher Education

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for higher education.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Social Services & Income Maintenance

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures by fiscal year for public welfare, hospitals, health, employment security administration, and veterans’ services.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Direct General Expenditures: Total

Source: US Census Bureau

Total state and local government direct expenditures (all expenditures other than intergovernmental transfers) by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Taxes

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues from own sources generated from taxes by fiscal year.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

State & Local Government Revenues: Total General Revenues

Source: US Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finance

Total state and local government revenues by fiscal year from taxes, charges and miscellaneous general revenue, and intergovernmental revenues from federal government.  Does not include restricted revenues from liquor stores revenue, insurance trust revenue (e.g., pensions, unemployment insurance), and utility revenue.

State and Local Government Finance, https://www.census.gov/govs/local/index.html

State data compiled from a census of all states. Local government data from a survey and subject to sampling error.

Business Conditions

Sales & Use Tax Rate: State

Source: Tax Foundation

State portion of generally applicable sales and use tax. Goods and services subject to tax varies widely by state.

https://taxfoundation.org/publications/facts-and-figures/.

Goods and services subject to tax varies widely by state.

Sales & Use Tax Rate: State-Local Average

Source: Tax Foundation

Average of state and locally-assessed generally application sales and use tax. Goods and services subject to tax varies widely by state.

https://taxfoundation.org/publications/facts-and-figures/

Goods and services subject to tax varies widely by state.

Property Tax

Source: Tax Foundation

Per capita state and local property tax collections.

https://taxfoundation.org/publications/facts-and-figures/

UI: Average Employer Contribution Rate

Source: US Department of Labor, Employment & Training Administration, https://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/avg_employ.asp.

Average employer contribution rate for unemployment insurance, shown as a percentage of taxable payroll.

Data is estimated, and excludes state and local jurisdictions covering state and local government employees on a reimbursable basis. Taxable wage base varies by state, ranging from the first $7,000 (US standard) in several states to $45,000 in Washington in 2017.

https://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/avg_employ.asp

Rank: Tax Climate

Source: Tax Foundation

Tax Foundation’s State Business Tax Climate Index developed from individual income tax, sales tax, corporate income tax, property tax, and unemployment insurance tax.

https://taxfoundation.org/publications/state-business-tax-climate-index/

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Graduate or Professional (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of graduate or professional degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Graduate or Professional (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of graduate or professional degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Corporate Income Tax Rate

Source: Tax Foundation

Maximum corporate income tax rate. States vary in the tax base against which the tax rate is applied. States also impose franchise, gross receipts, and similar taxes in addition to or instead of corporate income tax.

https://taxfoundation.org/state-tax/corporate-income-taxes/

Diesel per Gallon

Source: GasBuddy

Diesel prices are shown as the monthly average, dollars per gallon (including taxes) for all grades. Monthly data is reported on or around the 5th of the following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions. www.GasBuddy.com

GasBuddy’s gasoline price data is a collection of prices reported by its users via the GasBuddy website, the GasBuddy mobile apps, credit card (fleet card) transactions, and directly from gas stations. Since the prices on GasBuddy.com are input by individual users, no guarantees are made in regard to the accuracy of the inputted price, station name, station location, or other user dependent variables. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LL. shall have the right to, but not the obligation, to monitor, change, or remove any of the site content or information without notice at any time. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LLC shall not be held liable, regardless of the cause or duration, for any errors, inaccuracies, omissions, untimeliness, unauthenticated information, or other defects in the information or content within the website or associated tools (e.g., GasBuddy Price Tool).

Gasoline per Gallon

Source: GasBuddy

Gasoline prices are shown as the monthly average, dollars per gallon (including taxes) for Regular Gasoline. Monthly data is reported on or around the 5th of the following month.

www.GasBuddy.com.   GasBuddy’s gasoline price data is a collection of prices reported by its users via the GasBuddy website, the GasBuddy mobile apps, credit card (fleet card) transactions, and directly from gas stations. Since the prices on GasBuddy.com are input by individual users, no guarantees are made in regard to the accuracy of the inputted price, station name, station location, or other user dependent variables. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LL. shall have the right to, but not the obligation, to monitor, change, or remove any of the site content or information without notice at any time. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LLC shall not be held liable, regardless of the cause or duration, for any errors, inaccuracies, omissions, untimeliness, unauthenticated information, or other defects in the information or content within the website or associated tools (e.g., GasBuddy Price Tool).

Home Price +/- CA Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average California home price.  This index shows the relative cost of homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) in the different geographic areas of the state. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Overtime Rule

Source: US Department of Labor

For states with their own overtime laws, indicates the number of hours worked before overtime pay is required, as an indicator of which states maintain workplace laws allowing for flexible employee schedules.  40 hours or more indicates a weekly standard; 8-12 hours indicates a daily standard.  Where no number is shown, federal overtime requirements apply.

Some states that require overtime pay based on number of hours worked daily also have a weekly standard as well, generally 40 hours.

https://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm

Personal Income Tax Rate

Source: Tax Foundation

Highest state-levied personal income rate. Tax rates are as of January 1 in each year. Note that income brackets at which the highest rates apply also vary widely by state.

https://taxfoundation.org/publications/facts-and-figures/

Rank: Best States for Business

Source: Chief Executive

Chief Executive magazine ranking of Best & Worst States for Business based on a survey of CEOs.

https://chiefexecutive.net.

Right to Work State

Source: National Conference of State Legislatures

Indicates whether the state has enacted right to work statutes.

The year of enactment is based on the first year either a statute or constitutional provision became effective.

http://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/right-to-work-laws-and-bills.aspx.

State Minimum Wage

Source: US Department of Labor

Highest applicable general minimum wage rate per hour imposed by states.  Federal minimum wage applies in those states without an entry.

States may have differing rates based on employer characteristics. Local governments in some states may impose a rate higher than the state level.

https://www.dol.gov/whd/state/stateMinWageHis.htm

Tax Burden

Source: Tax Foundation

Per capita taxes paid by individuals to state and local governments (own state and other states).

https://taxfoundation.org/state-and-local-tax-burdens-historic-data/.

Union Membership: Construction

Source: Union Membership and Coverage Database

Union membership as a percentage of construction wage and salary employment, from Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

The Union Membership and Coverage Database is available at www.unionstats.com. The Database, constructed by Barry Hirsch (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University) and David Macpherson (Department of Economics, Trinity University), was created in 2002 and is updated annually.

Private and public sector labor union membership, coverage, and density estimates compiled from the monthly household Current Population Survey (CPS) using BLS methods.

Union Membership: Manufacturing

Source: Union Membership and Coverage Database

Union membership as a percentage of manufacturing wage and salary employment, from Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

The Union Membership and Coverage Database is available at www.unionstats.com. The Database, constructed by Barry Hirsch (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University) and David Macpherson (Department of Economics, Trinity University), was created in 2002 and is updated annually.

Private and public sector labor union membership, coverage, and density estimates compiled from the monthly household Current Population Survey (CPS) using BLS methods.

Union Membership: Private

Source: Union Membership and Coverage Database

Union membership as a percentage of total private wage and salary employment, from Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

The Union Membership and Coverage Database is available at www.unionstats.com. The Database, constructed by Barry Hirsch (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University) and David Macpherson (Department of Economics, Trinity University), was created in 2002 and is updated annually.

Private and public sector labor union membership, coverage, and density estimates compiled from the monthly household Current Population Survey (CPS) using BLS methods.

Union Membership: Public

Source: Union Membership and Coverage Database

Union membership as a percentage of total public wage and salary employment, from Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

The Union Membership and Coverage Database is available at www.unionstats.com. The Database, constructed by Barry Hirsch (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University) and David Macpherson (Department of Economics, Trinity University), was created in 2002 and is updated annually.

Private and public sector labor union membership, coverage, and density estimates compiled from the monthly household Current Population Survey (CPS) using BLS methods.

Union Membership: Total

Source: Union Membership and Coverage Database

Union membership as a percentage of total wage and salary employment, from Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

The Union Membership and Coverage Database is available at www.unionstats.com. The Database, constructed by Barry Hirsch (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University) and David Macpherson (Department of Economics, Trinity University), was created in 2002 and is updated annually.

Private and public sector labor union membership, coverage, and density estimates compiled from the monthly household Current Population Survey (CPS) using BLS methods.

Workers Compensation Cost

Source: Oregon Department of Consumer & Business Services

Relative index of workers’ compensation premium rates, derived as a weighted average of rates for NCCI classification codes.

Data is for rates in effect January 1 of each survey years. US level is the state median.

http://www.oregon.gov/DCBS/cost/Pages/index.aspx.

Home Price +/- US Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average US home price.  This index shows the relative cost of California homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) compared to the US average. Data for the US is from the US Census Bureau. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Electricity Price Commercial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Electricity Price Industrial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the industrial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Zillow Home Value Index: Single Family Homes

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of single family homes. (ZHVI), Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all homes within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Zillow Home Value Index: Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of multi-family residential units. (ZHVI) Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Median Price: Existing SFR Detached Homes

Source: California Association of Realtors, Median Prices of Existing Detached Homes

Median sales price for existing single family homes. https://www.car.org/en/marketdata/data/countysalesactivity

Value is from the final escrow price of actual sales.

Natural Gas Price Commercial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Natural Gas Price Industrial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Zillow Rent Index: Mulitfamily, SFR, Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of rent for all housing units. (ZRI) Summary: Multifamily, SFR,Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value. Value is based on actual rents and estimated rents for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of units actually rented.

Population

Migration: Higher Income Non-Migrant Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

As a point of comparison, average adjusted gross income for returns filed by residents showing an AGI of $200,000 or more who have not changed address in the past year.

Migration: Higher Income Inflow Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Average adjusted gross income per return of in-migrating residents showing an AGI of $200,000 or higher.

Migration: Total Inflow Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Total average adjusted gross income per return of in-migrating residents.

Migration: Higher Income Inflow by Number of Tax Returns

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Number of tax returns filed by residents with an AGI of $200,000 or higher who have moved into the state or county based on their prior year address.  Number of returns is an approximation of migrating households.

Migration: State Non-Migrant Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

As a point of comparison, total average adjusted gross income for returns filed by residents who have not changed address in the past year.

Migration: Higher Income Outflow Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Average adjusted gross income per return of out-migrating residents showing an AGI of $200,000 or higher.

Migration: Total Outflow Average AGI

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Total average adjusted gross income per return of out-migrating residents. https://www.irs.gov/statistics/soi-tax-stats-migration-data.

Data covers only persons who have filed a tax return in both years.  Due to the IRS method changes, data is not strictly comparable over time, and differences should be taken into account.  The primary point of discontinuity is the 2012 data.  AGI incorporates negative amounts into the averages.

Migration: Higher Income Outflow by Number of Tax Returns

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Number of tax returns filed by residents with an AGI of $200,000 or higher who have moved from the state or county based on their prior year address.  Number of returns is an approximation of migrating households.

Migration: Total Outflow by Number of Tax Returns

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Total number of tax returns filed by residents who have moved from the state or county based on their prior year address.  Number of returns is an approximation of migrating households.

Data covers only persons who have filed a tax return in both years.  Due to the IRS method changes, data is not strictly comparable over time, and differences should be taken into account.  The primary point of discontinuity is the 2012 data. https://www.irs.gov/statistics/soi-tax-stats-migration-data

Migration: Total Inflow by Number of Tax Returns

Source: US Internal Revenue Service

Total number of tax returns filed by residents who have moved to the state or county based on their prior year address.  Number of returns is an approximation of migrating households. https://www.irs.gov/statistics/soi-tax-stats-migration-data.

Data covers only persons who have filed a tax return in both years.  Due to the IRS method changes, data is not strictly comparable over time, and differences should be taken into account.  The primary point of discontinuity is the 2012 data.

Age Share: 55-64 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within total population.

Age Share (monthly): 0-15

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 0-15

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 16-19

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 16-19

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 20-24

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 20-24

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 25-64

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 25-64

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 65+

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year.  Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Age Share (monthly): 65+

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Gender Share: Men (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within total population.

Gender Share (monthly): Men (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Gender Share (monthly): Men DOF

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates and projections from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Gender Share (monthly): Women (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Gender Share (monthly): Women DOF

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates and projections from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Gender Share: Women (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within total population.

Population (Dept. of Finance)

Source: Department of Finance

Calculated from the annual estimates and projections from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution. Covers resident population and does not include armed forces overseas. Population and population aged 16 and over estimates for legislative districts are calculated using the Census Share method, population share data from the ACS 5-year survey, and county estimates for each month.

Population (US Census Bureau)

Source: US Census Bureau

Calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year.  Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.  Covers resident population and does not include armed forces overseas.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): Asian & Pi (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Asian and Pacific Islander, Non-Latino share of population from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): Asian

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Asians and Pacific Islanders, Non-Latino share of population from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): Black (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): Black

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): Latino (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution. Latinos may be of any race.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): Latino

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates and projections from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution. Latinos may be of any race.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): Multirace (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): Multirace

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): Native American (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): Native American

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (monthly): White (BOC)

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/tables/

Census Bureau no longer prepares projections for the states. Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Race/Ethnicity Share (Monthly): White

Source: Department of Finance

Percentage calculated from the annual estimates for Non-Latino share of population from Department of Finance as of July 1 of each year. Other months are taken as a straight-line distribution.

http://dof.ca.gov/Forecasting/Demographics/

Data updated annually, with decennial revisions based on census-level data.

Economic Opportunity

Number of Employees: 0-4 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of employees reported in Q1 by all Private establishments in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Employees: 1,000 or more employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of employees reported in Q1 by all Private establishments in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Employees: 250-999 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of employees reported in Q1 by all Private establishments in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Employees: 5-49 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of employees reported in Q1 by all Private establishments in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Employees: 50-249 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of employees reported in Q1 by all Private establishments in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Establishments

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates.   Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

US Average Forecast: Unemployment

Source: Various

Average of the most recent forecasts for the state and national economies, including Department of Finance, Legislative Analysts’ Office, Congressional Budget Office, and various private forecasting sources.

Business Registration Terminations: Corporations

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of registrations for for-profit Corporations becoming inactive through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Business Registration Terminations: LLC

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of registrations for LLCs (limited liability corporations) becoming inactive through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Business Registration Terminations: LP

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of registrations for LPs (limited partnerships) becoming inactive through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Business Registration Terminations: Non-Profit

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of registrations for non-profit Corporations becoming inactive through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Business Registration Terminations: Total

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of registrations for Corporations, LPs (limited partnerships), and LLCs (limited liability corporations) becoming inactive through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Births: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job gains from establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or establishments with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a subset of Openings, which are broader and include establishments with re-openings within a year (e.g., seasonal businesses). All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Births: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or establishments with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a subset of Openings, which are broader and include establishments with re-openings within a year (e.g., seasonal businesses). All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Closings: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job losses from establishments showing zero employment compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Closings: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of establishments showing zero employment compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Contractions: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job losses from establishments with a decrease in jobs compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Contractions: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of establishments with a decrease in jobs compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Deaths: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job losses from establishments with no employment or zero employment reported in the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with positive employment. Deaths are a subset of Closings, which are broader and include businesses with seasonal closings during a year. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Deaths: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of establishments with no employment or zero employment reported in the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with positive employment. Deaths are a subset of Closings, which are broader and include businesses with seasonal closings during a year. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states.  Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels.  Quarterly data subject to annual revisions.  Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Expansions: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job gains from establishments with an increase in jobs compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Expansions: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of establishments with an increase in jobs compared to the prior quarter. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Gross Job Losses: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Total of job losses from Establishment Closings and Contractions. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Gross Job Losses: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Total number of closing and contracting establishments. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Gross Job Gains: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Total of job gains from Establishment Openings and Expansions.  All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Gross Job Gains: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Total number of opening and expanding establishments. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Business Employment Dynamics, https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Openings: Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Job gains from the opening of new establishments (or establishments with zero employment in the prior quarter) in the quarter shown. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

https://data.bls.gov/bdm/

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Openings: Establishments

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Business Employment Dynamics

Number of new establishments (or establishments with zero employment in the prior quarter) in the quarter shown. All data is for Private establishments, all establishment size classes, not seasonally adjusted. Data is drawn from the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages and covers all private establishments with covered workers who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th day of the subject quarter, including workers on paid leave during that period. The data is establishment based, meaning it is based on the number of wage and salary jobs rather than the number of people employed. An individual worker may hold more than one job, but each job is counted separately in the data base. Similarly, the jobs may be full or part time, but each one is treated equally for the purposes of counting employment.

Data available only for US and states. Additional detail available by establishment size and certain NAICS industry levels. Quarterly data subject to annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/cewbd.htm

Labor Force Participation Rate (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

The number within the Labor Force as a percentage of the total Noninstitutional Civilian Population.  Data for areas below the state level other than for Los Angeles County are calculated from the estimated population age 16 and over, adjusted for the non-civilian component based on the state average.  Not seasonally adjusted.

Labor Force Participation Rate (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

The number within the Labor Force as a percentage of the total Noninstitutional Civilian Population. Seasonally adjusted. Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

New Business Registrations: Corporations

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of new business filings plus previously inactive registrations revived or restored for for-profit Corporations through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

New Business Registrations: LLC

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of new business filings plus previously inactive registrations revived or restored for LLCs (limited liability corporations) through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

New Business Registrations: LP

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of new business filings plus previously inactive registrations revived or restored for LPs (limited partnerships) through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

New Business Registrations: Non-Profit

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of new business filings plus previously inactive registrations revived or restored for non-profit Corporations through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

New Business Registrations: Total

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of new business filings plus previously inactive registrations revived or restored for Corporations, LPs (limited partnerships), and LLCs (limited liability corporations) through the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Business Registrations: Corporations

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of active for-profit (stock) Corporations at the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Business Registrations: LLC

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of active LLCs (limited liability corporations) at the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Business Registrations: LP

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of active LPs (limited partnerships), at the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Business Registrations: Non-Profit

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of active non-profit (non-stock) Corporations at the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Business Registrations: Total

Source: Analysis of Secretary of State Corporation and LP-LLC files.

Total number of active Corporations, LPs (limited partnerships), and LLCs (limited liability corporations) at the end of each quarter.

Totals for the component geographies do not sum to state total due to lack of California zip code for some registrations.

Number of Establishments: 1000 or more employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code. Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Establishments: 50-249 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code. Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Establishments: 0-4 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code.

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Establishments: 5-49 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code. Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Number of Establishments: 250-999 employees

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average number of establishments reported in Q1 by all Private firms in the Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages within each NAICS code. Data only available for states and US. Data is also available for many detailed NAICS codes. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

Proprietors: Farm

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Number of individuals operating as Sole Proprietorships and General Partners in farming operations. Data is generally updated in September (states) and November (counties), along with revisions to previous year data.

Proprietors: Farm Income

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total income from farm Sole Proprietorships and General Partners. Data is generally updated in September (states) and November (counties), along with revisions to previous year data.

Proprietors: Non-Farm

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Number of individuals operating as Sole Proprietorships and General Partners in nonfarm businesses. Data is generally updated in September (states) and November (counties), along with revisions to previous year data.

Proprietors: Non-Farm Income

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total income from non-farm Sole Proprietorships and General Partners. Data is generally updated in September (states) and November (counties), along with revisions to previous year data.

Proprietors: Total

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Number of individuals operating as Sole Proprietorships and General Partners. Total employment includes this group along with wage & salary employment and unpaid family workers. Data is generally updated in September (states) and November (counties), along with revisions to previous year data.

Cost of Living

Affordability: Index (Homeowners)

The Affordability Gap in each geography is measured by the total for all Necessity Costs compared to pre-tax income. Necessity Costs are net of the duplication in property tax for homeowners and motor vehicle licenses for all households, and also have been adjusted to net out the tax incidence amounts in the Tax component estimated for fees and other taxes, other property taxes, and sales tax as a significant portion of these items have already been built into the prices paid for items such as food, fuels, and other consumer goods and services. The resulting number is used to show the total and percentage of income for the average household spent annually on the necessities contained in the Index.

The Affordability Gap can be used in two ways:

• Relative costs in each California geography can be shown by comparing to the average Affordability Gap for all states other than California (US less California). Relative costs within California can be shown by comparing to the California average.

• Cost burdened provides an absolute measure for comparing geographies, based on the ratio of total Necessity Costs to average income. Cost Burdened is where the Necessity Costs contained in the Index fall between 70% and 75% of income. Severe Cost Burdened is where the necessity costs are 76% or more of income. Not Cost Burdened is where necessity costs are 69% or below.

The cost burdened measure was developed from the detailed average expenditure results in the 2017 Consumer Expenditures Survey that allows a comparison to the expenditure categories in the Affordability Index. Spending at the 76% of income level for the Index necessities allows just for other essential goods and services (other housing costs such as maintenance, repairs, equipment, and supplies; apparel and services; personal care products and services; and other transportation costs not included in the Index such as maintenance and repairs, vehicle payments, and public and other transportation). At this point, spending is crowded out for “nonessentials” (such as entertainment and reading; miscellaneous including alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and other; and cash contributions), expenditures related to upward mobility and the future (education, savings, and life and other personal insurance), as well as any amounts needed for other items such as child care and elder care.

Individual households will obviously make adjustments well before the 76% level is reached, but this measure represents the point where keeping up with just the Index necessities becomes overwhelming for the average household.

Affordability: Index (Renters)

The Affordability Gap in each geography is measured by the total for all Necessity Costs compared to pre-tax income. Necessity Costs are net of the duplication in property tax for homeowners and motor vehicle licenses for all households, and also have been adjusted to net out the tax incidence amounts in the Tax component estimated for fees and other taxes, other property taxes, and sales tax as a significant portion of these items have already been built into the prices paid for items such as food, fuels, and other consumer goods and services. The resulting number is used to show the total and percentage of income for the average household spent annually on the necessities contained in the Index.

The Affordability Gap can be used in two ways:

• Relative costs in each California geography can be shown by comparing to the average Affordability Gap for all states other than California (US less California). Relative costs within California can be shown by comparing to the California average.

• Cost burdened provides an absolute measure for comparing geographies, based on the ratio of total Necessity Costs to average income. Cost Burdened is where the Necessity Costs contained in the Index fall between 70% and 75% of income. Severe Cost Burdened is where the necessity costs are 76% or more of income. Not Cost Burdened is where necessity costs are 69% or below.

The cost burdened measure was developed from the detailed average expenditure results in the 2017 Consumer Expenditures Survey that allows a comparison to the expenditure categories in the Affordability Index. Spending at the 76% of income level for the Index necessities allows just for other essential goods and services (other housing costs such as maintenance, repairs, equipment, and supplies; apparel and services; personal care products and services; and other transportation costs not included in the Index such as maintenance and repairs, vehicle payments, and public and other transportation). At this point, spending is crowded out for “nonessentials” (such as entertainment and reading; miscellaneous including alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and other; and cash contributions), expenditures related to upward mobility and the future (education, savings, and life and other personal insurance), as well as any amounts needed for other items such as child care and elder care.

Individual households will obviously make adjustments well before the 76% level is reached, but this measure represents the point where keeping up with just the Index necessities becomes overwhelming for the average household.

Affordability: Necessity Costs – Total (Homeowners)

The Affordability Index is structured to display the core costs of living faced by the average household (owner-occupied and renter-occupied) in the different states and for California, the counties and legislative districts. The Affordability Index is consequently a measure of how the general cost of living differs by geographic area rather than—as in other indices of this type—a measure of what a given income can buy in different areas.

Data availability varies for each of the components contained in the Index. All values, however, are brought up to the same, most current full year using the different estimation sources discussed under each component. These estimations are performed on a rolling basis. As data is published, it is provided in an update, and the subsequent year is then estimated from this base.

Affordability: Necessity Costs – Total (Renters)

The Affordability Index is structured to display the core costs of living faced by the average household (owner-occupied and renter-occupied) in the different states and for California, the counties and legislative districts. The Affordability Index is consequently a measure of how the general cost of living differs by geographic area rather than—as in other indices of this type—a measure of what a given income can buy in different areas.

Data availability varies for each of the components contained in the Index. All values, however, are brought up to the same, most current full year using the different estimation sources discussed under each component. These estimations are performed on a rolling basis. As data is published, it is provided in an update, and the subsequent year is then estimated from this base.

Affordability: Housing – Total (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

The cost of housing continues to rise in California as the supply of housing grows far slower than the rate needed to keep up with population. As stated by the nonpartisan Legislative Analysts’ Office: Rent is high in California because the state does not have enough housing for everyone who wants to live here. People who want to live here must compete for housing, which increases rents. The state Department of Housing & Community Development estimates that California has needed 180,000 new housing units each year since 2014 (200,000 units in the prior years) just to keep up with population. Yet, the Center’s Indicators show permits for only 116,000 housing units were issued in 2018.In fact, since 1990, new housing permits have been near or exceeded the required additional supply in only three years.

The cost of housing is also affected by the significantly higher costs of building in California. These factors include relatively higher costs for land but also items such as the greater cost and length of the required permitting in California compared to other states, the growing size of local fees including escalating “impact” fees, restrictions on the type of finishings that can be used such as appliances, lighting, plumbing fixtures, and irrigation, and other state and local regulatory requirements unique to California that mandate how housing is to be built and where it can be located.

The Housing Cost category in the Index is shown separately for owner-occupied and renter-occupied housing using averages within each of the covered jurisdictions. The components in this category include all housing costs, including mortgage or rent payments along with property tax, property insurance, electricity, natural gas, and water and sanitary sewer to encompass the full costs of housing generally used in affordability comparisons.

Affordability: Housing – Total (Renters)

Source: IPUMS USA

Rents paid by households vary widely by what they cover—rent alone or rent along with amounts for utilities built into the rent amount or allocated as a separate monthly charge.In the Index, Rent is the average gross rent adjusted for these costs—electricity, natural gas, and water/sewer.Data is taken from the American Community Survey tabulations and from IPUMS NHGIS, University of Minnesota, www.nhgis.org, and from analysis of the American Community Survey public use microdata statistics through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. The rents were bottom coded to remove the lower outliers and cover units with at least 2 bedrooms. The data was grouped by household income in increments ($0 – $50,000; $50,001 – $100,000; $100,001 – $150,000) to produce averages paid at the average income levels in the Index. The gross rent amounts were then adjusted for the amounts paid for electricity, natural gas, and water and sewer.

The data contained in the Index is the average of rents actually being paid by rental households by income group, including those who have been in the same unit for several years and those living in rent-controlled units often for many years. As a result, these average numbers are generally lower than the average and median rents more frequently reported in the media, which are not rents being paid but instead are asking rents for units on the market.

For some geographic levels, the data is only available in the 5-year results from the American Community Survey. These are turned into one-year estimates using a census share methodology.For the smaller counties, the estimates are based on their relative shares within the encompassing Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA).For the legislative districts, the estimates are based on their relative shares of their component county portions and for districts wholly within a single county, adjusted based on the relationship for the 5-year values.

The American Community Survey data is top coded at about $5,300 a month. The data is adjusted for this factor to some extent by the fact that state values in the Survey above the annual top code level are entered as the average of all such values. However, this component of the Index still likely undercounts values for very high cost areas such as San Francisco and much of the rest of the Bay Area.

Data is generally available with a 2-year lag. Estimates for the most current year are done using the change in the Zillow Rent Index for all rental types.

Affordability: Housing – Condo Fee (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

While currently a significant factor primarily in the larger urban areas, condo and other homeowners association fees are becoming a more significant component of housing costs as state policies push more for multi-family housing developments, and even in the case of single family developments as a result of local regulations and fee structures.

This factor was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org

Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA. Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by owner-occupied units. Because of the small differences, a single average rather than by income class was used.

Affordability: Housing – Electricity (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

Prices for electricity in California have risen substantially compared to the national average as a result of growing state mandates on electricity generation under the state’s climate change program. Between 2010 (when the state’s Early Action climate change elements were begun) through 2018, the average annual residential bill grew 24% in California, while the average bill for all other states grew only 5%.

Electricity bills also vary widely within the state primarily coming from the need for air conditioning in the hotter interior regions. From the calculations in the Index for 2018, average annual electricity use was as much as twice as high for homeowners in the Central Valley compared to the milder climate Bay Area, and close to three times as high for renters.

Annual Electricity cost in the Index was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop a more reasonable average. Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA.Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

Previous analysis by the Census Bureau concluded that the Survey respondents generally overestimate the value of this cost.The initial results were consequently trued up to other data on electricity use. Usage by kWh was estimated for each jurisdiction by using the applicable average annual price for residential end users from US Energy Information Administration, and then adjusted to conform to total annual residential use for both the states using US Energy Information Administration data and the counties using Energy Commission data.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag while the price information is available with only a 4-month lag. The most recent year values were estimated using the prior year usage by tenure type and the most current year residential electricity price.

Affordability: Housing – Electricity (Renters)

Source: IPUMS USA

Prices for electricity in California have risen substantially compared to the national average as a result of growing state mandates on electricity generation under the state’s climate change program. Between 2010 (when the state’s Early Action climate change elements were begun) through 2018, the average annual residential bill grew 24% in California, while the average bill for all other states grew only 5%.

Electricity bills also vary widely within the state primarily coming from the need for air conditioning in the hotter interior regions. From the calculations in the Index for 2018, average annual electricity use was as much as twice as high for homeowners in the Central Valley compared to the milder climate Bay Area, and close to three times as high for renters.

Annual Electricity cost in the Index was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop a more reasonable average. Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA.Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

Previous analysis by the Census Bureau concluded that the Survey respondents generally overestimate the value of this cost.The initial results were consequently trued up to other data on electricity use. Usage by kWh was estimated for each jurisdiction by using the applicable average annual price for residential end users from US Energy Information Administration, and then adjusted to conform to total annual residential use for both the states using US Energy Information Administration data and the counties using Energy Commission data.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag while the price information is available with only a 4-month lag. The most recent year values were estimated using the prior year usage by tenure type and the most current year residential electricity price.

Affordability: Housing – Insurance (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

Property Insurance is the average annual amount for each income band for fire, hazard, and flood insurance. This factor was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA. Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by owner-occupied units.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag. The most recent year values were estimated using the prior 2-year average growth.

Affordability: Housing – Mortgage (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

Data is taken from the American Community Survey tabulations and from IPUMS NHGIS, University of Minnesota, www.nhgis.org, and from analysis of the American Community Survey public use microdata statistics through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. The data was grouped by household income ($0 – $50,000; $50,001 – $100,000; $100,001 – $150,000; $150,001 – $200,000; $200,001 – 300,000) to produce averages paid at the average income levels in the Index while retaining sufficient survey responses to cover these income bands in most areas. Where applicable, property tax and insurance components were netted out where one or both were included in the primary mortgage payment. The mortgage payment component includes both the primary and any secondary (including lines of credit) mortgage secured by the primary residence. The legislative district estimates are an average of the component counties, weighted by owner households within each county portion. For those districts lying wholly within the larger counties, an adjustment was made based on the relationship between selected owner costs from the 5-year American Community Survey data.

The data in the Index shows the average mortgage payment (net of property taxes and insurance) currently paid at the household income level in each area. As such, this data includes households who have just bought their homes, households who have lived at the same address for decades, and those who have refinanced their loans including often borrowing against their principle for home improvements and other purposes. The resulting averages show what homeowners are now paying in each area, and do not reflect current home values such as the rising median housing prices that are often cited in the media. As with rents, the mortgage values in the Index are what households now pay, and not what they would pay if moving into the area and buying a new home.

The property tax component is included in both the Housing Cost and Tax Burden categories of the Index, but this duplication is netted out in the overall Gap values.

Data is generally available with a 2-year lag. Estimates for the most current year are done using the change in the Zillow Home Value Index for all housing types and the relative housing values for legislative districts contained in the Center’s Indicators.

Affordability: Housing – Natural Gas (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

California prices for natural gas for many years were below national averages as a result of ample interstate pipeline capacity that produced a highly competitive market.This situation has changed as that capacity has grown constrained and as natural gas costs have also been affected by the state’s climate change policies.In 2018, California residential natural gas prices were 21% higher than the average for the rest of the states.

Natural gas use also varies by region in California primarily because of colder winter weather in the interior regions.From the calculations in the Index for 2018, average annual natural use was as much as a quarter higher for homeowners and renters in the Central Valley compared to the milder climate Bay Area.

Annual Natural Gas cost in the Index was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org.In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop a more reasonable average.Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA.Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

Previous analysis by the Census Bureau concluded that the Survey respondents generally overestimate the value of this cost.The initial results were consequently trued up to other data on natural gas use.Usage by tcf was estimated for each jurisdiction by using the applicable average annual price for residential end users from US Energy Information Administration, and then adjusted to conform to total annual residential use for both the states using US Energy Information Administration data and the counties using Energy Commission data.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag while the price data is available with only a 4-month lag.The most recent year values were estimated using the prior year usage by tenure type and the most current year residential natural gas price.

Affordability: Housing – Natural Gas (Renters)

Source: IPUMS USA

California prices for natural gas for many years were below national averages as a result of ample interstate pipeline capacity that produced a highly competitive market.This situation has changed as that capacity has grown constrained and as natural gas costs have also been affected by the state’s climate change policies.In 2018, California residential natural gas prices were 21% higher than the average for the rest of the states.

Natural gas use also varies by region in California primarily because of colder winter weather in the interior regions.From the calculations in the Index for 2018, average annual natural use was as much as a quarter higher for homeowners and renters in the Central Valley compared to the milder climate Bay Area.

Annual Natural Gas cost in the Index was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org.In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop a more reasonable average.Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA.Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

Previous analysis by the Census Bureau concluded that the Survey respondents generally overestimate the value of this cost.The initial results were consequently trued up to other data on natural gas use.Usage by tcf was estimated for each jurisdiction by using the applicable average annual price for residential end users from US Energy Information Administration, and then adjusted to conform to total annual residential use for both the states using US Energy Information Administration data and the counties using Energy Commission data.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag while the price data is available with only a 4-month lag.The most recent year values were estimated using the prior year usage by tenure type and the most current year residential natural gas price.

Affordability: Housing – Property Tax (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

California’s ranking in property tax collections depends on which measure is used. Because of Proposition 13, California has a relatively low tax rate. Tax Foundation data indicates California had the 35th highest rate in 2017, at 0.70% of full market value. Proposition 13’s limits on property tax rates and reassessments also mean households buying a home or employers buying a property to begin a business know with a high level of certainty what their property tax payments will be over time, while this amount will vary in other states according to periodic assessments of a property’s value and far fewer limits on the property tax rate.

Measured by property tax collections per capita, however, California ranks much higher at 17th as a result of the state’s significantly higher property values.

Property Tax costs in the Index are estimated in two components. The portion paid by homeowners is calculated as described under the Housing Cost category.

For the non-homeowner portion, the homeowner total is subtracted from total property tax revenues (state and local government total) reported in the annual US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report. The amount ultimately passed on to individuals (through higher prices and reduced wages) by businesses is estimated using the general share of existing business taxes shifted to labor and prices from a 2010 business tax incidence study prepared for US Federation of Tax Administrators. The result is then divided by the total number of households in each geographic area. No adjustments are made for differences between homeowners and renters, although renters pay a relatively higher share as a result of property tax pass-throughs in their rent. This amount is assumed to be counterbalanced for the relatively lower consumption levels as reflected in the differences in average income.

The Census Data is generally available with a 3-year lag. The non-homeowner portion is updated based on the relationship between homeowner and non-homeowner portions in the most recent year available.

Note that the homeowner portion is included in both the Housing Cost and Tax Burden categories, with the duplication adjusted in the total amounts used for the Gap calculations.

There is an element of double counting associated with the non-homeowner portion. This component is already built into prices paid for food, energy, healthcare, and insurance and generally is incorporated into rents as well. While these sectors do not constitute the full amounts paid, the overlap is significant enough that this component is adjusted from the total amounts used for the Gap calculations. This element is retained in the Tax portion of the Index to illustrate the total cost of taxes to the average household in each area.

Affordability: Housing – Rent (Renters)

Source: IPUMS NHGIS

Rents paid by households vary widely by what they cover—rent alone or rent along with amounts for utilities built into the rent amount or allocated as a separate monthly charge. In the Index, Rent is the average gross rent adjusted for these costs—electricity, natural gas, and water/sewer. Data is taken from the American Community Survey tabulations and from IPUMS NHGIS, University of Minnesota, www.nhgis.org, and from analysis of the American Community Survey public use microdata statistics through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. The rents were bottom coded to remove the lower outliers and cover units with at least 2 bedrooms. The data was grouped by household income in increments ($0 – $50,000; $50,001 – $100,000; $100,001 – $150,000) to produce averages paid at the average income levels in the Index. The gross rent amounts were then adjusted for the amounts paid for electricity, natural gas, and water and sewer.

The data contained in the Index is the average of rents actually being paid by rental households by income group, including those who have been in the same unit for several years and those living in rent-controlled units often for many years. As a result, these average numbers are generally lower than the average and median rents more frequently reported in the media, which are not rents being paid but instead are asking rents for units on the market.

For some geographic levels, the data is only available in the 5-year results from the American Community Survey. These are turned into one-year estimates using a census share methodology. For the smaller counties, the estimates are based on their relative shares within the encompassing Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA). For the legislative districts, the estimates are based on their relative shares of their component county portions and for districts wholly within a single county, adjusted based on the relationship for the 5-year values.

The American Community Survey data is top coded at about $5,300 a month. The data is adjusted for this factor to some extent by the fact that state values in the Survey above the annual top code level are entered as the average of all such values. However, this component of the Index still likely undercounts values for very high cost areas such as San Francisco and much of the rest of the Bay Area.

Data is generally available with a 2-year lag. Estimates for the most current year are done using the change in the Zillow Rent Index for all rental types.

Affordability: Housing – Water (Homeowners)

Source: IPUMS USA

Water is the average amount paid annually for each income band for both water and sanitary sewer service. This factor was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop an average closer to the typical household use. Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA. Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag. The most recent year values were estimated using the prior 2-year average growth.

Affordability: Housing – Water (Renters)

Source: IPUMS USA

Water is the average amount paid annually for each income band for both water and sanitary sewer service. This factor was estimated through the PUMS data and University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. In the calculations, extreme values were removed from the sample to develop an average closer to the typical household use. Values for the smaller counties are taken as the overall overage for the encompassing PUMA. Values for the legislative districts were estimated from an average of the component counties, weighted by units for each tenure class.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag. The most recent year values were estimated using the prior 2-year average growth.

Affordability: Income (Homeowners)

Source: American Community Survey

The indicator shows average household income by tenure, calculated by dividing total household income by total number of housing units in each jurisdiction for both owner-occupied and renter-occupied housing units.Data source is the annual American Community Survey, taken directly both from the US Census Bureau tabulations and from data available through IPUMS NHGIS, University of Minnesota, www.nhgis.org.Average income covers before-tax household income from all sources, and is not adjusted for non-cash government transfer payments such as food stamps or the value of Medi-Cal benefits or for the value of employee non-wage compensation such as health insurance benefits.

For some geographic levels, the data is only available in the 5-year results from the American Community Survey.These are turned into one-year estimates using a census share methodology.For the smaller counties, the estimates are based on their relative shares within the encompassing Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA).For the legislative districts, the estimates are based on relative shares of their component county portions.As with the other Index components, the resulting estimates for very small areas are consequently more variable than those for larger areas with sufficient survey data, but are included to remain consistent in the data sources.

Data is generally available with a 2-year lag.Estimates for the most current year shown in the Index use the 2-year average growth rate in per capita income by state from US Bureau of Economic Analysis.Estimates of the most current year for housing units is done using the growth rates derived from the Census Bureau annual estimate of housing units for states and counties.

Affordability: Income (Renters)

Source: American Community Survey

The indicator shows average household income by tenure, calculated by dividing total household income by total number of housing units in each jurisdiction for both owner-occupied and renter-occupied housing units.Data source is the annual American Community Survey, taken directly both from the US Census Bureau tabulations and from data available through IPUMS NHGIS, University of Minnesota, www.nhgis.org.Average income covers before-tax household income from all sources, and is not adjusted for non-cash government transfer payments such as food stamps or the value of Medi-Cal benefits or for the value of employee non-wage compensation such as health insurance benefits.

For some geographic levels, the data is only available in the 5-year results from the American Community Survey.These are turned into one-year estimates using a census share methodology.For the smaller counties, the estimates are based on their relative shares within the encompassing Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA).For the legislative districts, the estimates are based on relative shares of their component county portions.As with the other Index components, the resulting estimates for very small areas are consequently more variable than those for larger areas with sufficient survey data, but are included to remain consistent in the data sources.

Data is generally available with a 2-year lag.Estimates for the most current year shown in the Index use the 2-year average growth rate in per capita income by state from US Bureau of Economic Analysis.Estimates of the most current year for housing units is done using the growth rates derived from the Census Bureau annual estimate of housing units for states and counties.

Affordability: Transportation – Total (Homeowners)

Source: American Petroleum Institute, US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports

Transportation is the total annual cost for fuel, fuel taxes, vehicle insurance, and motor vehicle licenses.

Affordability: Transportation – Total (Renters)

Source: American Petroleum Institute, US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports

Transportation is the total annual cost for fuel, fuel taxes, vehicle insurance, and motor vehicle licenses.

Affordability: Transportation – Gas Tax (Homeowners)

Source: American Petroleum Institute

As of July 2019, California had the highest gasoline tax at $0.7960 per gallon (federal and state taxes). Although not included as a separate fuel, California also had the highest diesel tax at $1.1133 a gallon.

Total annual cost for fuel taxes was estimated using the annual gallons of gasoline used by each household type, as detailed under the Fuel methodology. Applicable federal, state, and local taxes by state are from the July reports each year from American Petroleum Institute. The value for each of the California geographies uses the state average and is not adjusted for any differences in sales tax rates.

Affordability: Transportation – Gas Tax (Renters)

Source: American Petroleum Institute

As of July 2019, California had the highest gasoline tax at $0.7960 per gallon (federal and state taxes). Although not included as a separate fuel, California also had the highest diesel tax at $1.1133 a gallon.

Total annual cost for fuel taxes was estimated using the annual gallons of gasoline used by each household type, as detailed under the Fuel methodology. Applicable federal, state, and local taxes by state are from the July reports each year from American Petroleum Institute. The value for each of the California geographies uses the state average and is not adjusted for any differences in sales tax rates.

Affordability: Transportation – Gasoline (Homeowners)

Source: US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Throughout 2018, California had the highest or second highest price among the states for gasoline and diesel. While some of the factors producing these price levels are a result of higher general operating costs in California for production, transport, and retail sale of these fuels, others are attributable to several California-only conditions. California has its own regulations for the formulation of these fuels, and the costs to produce to these regulations are higher. The regulations also have changed frequently over time, leading to additional production cost components. As of July 2019, California had the highest gasoline tax at $0.7960 per gallon (federal and state taxes). Additional costs have also come increasingly from the state climate change program, including Cap and Trade fees on both the production and use of fuels as well as production-specific regulations such as the Low Carbon Fuel Standard.

California fuel prices are more volatile than in other states. Because of the state’s regulations on fuel production, there have been limited and in some years no alternative sources for compliant fuels and blending components, essentially isolating the state from all other fuel markets. Any disruptions at the state’s refineries—which have been more likely during the biannual refinery changeovers between the winter and summer fuel formulations—have often led to supply disruptions and consequent price increases.

Fuel costs are based on annual vehicle miles traveled using data from the 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Surveys under US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. The estimates come from average vehicle miles traveled per driver by tenure (owner occupied and renter occupied) and income class by state, and then are applied to the average household income by tenure estimated for each state. In cases where the miles data point is not available or a clear outlier, the state-wide average was used instead. The 2009 Survey is used for 2005-2012 to reach the mid point between the two survey periods. The 2017 results are used for 2013 to the most current year.

Using two drivers per household and the assumption that the second vehicle is driven half as much as the first, total number of gallons of gasoline annually were calculated using the national average of fuel efficiency for existing US light duty vehicles from US Department of Transportation. This data generally has a three-year lag, and updates to the most recent year were based on the average value of the two most recent available years, an approach which currently reflects the growing consumer preference for light trucks that accelerated after 2016. While California is the only state with a significant component of zero emission vehicles in its fleet, no adjustments have yet been made due to: (1) low overall penetration to date into the total California fleet, (2) results of studies indicating that many of the battery electric vehicles continue to be driven primarily as other than the main commuting vehicle, and (3) two-thirds of “zero emission vehicles” sold in the state to date are actually combustion-electric hybrids. This factor will be revisited as appropriate in future updates.

Total annual fuel costs were then calculated using the average annual price per gallon for each state from GasBuddy.com data, adjusted to be net of applicable federal, state, and local taxes.

Affordability: Transportation – Gasoline (Renters)

Source: US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Throughout 2018, California had the highest or second highest price among the states for gasoline and diesel. While some of the factors producing these price levels are a result of higher general operating costs in California for production, transport, and retail sale of these fuels, others are attributable to several California-only conditions. California has its own regulations for the formulation of these fuels, and the costs to produce to these regulations are higher. The regulations also have changed frequently over time, leading to additional production cost components. As of July 2019, California had the highest gasoline tax at $0.7960 per gallon (federal and state taxes). Additional costs have also come increasingly from the state climate change program, including Cap and Trade fees on both the production and use of fuels as well as production-specific regulations such as the Low Carbon Fuel Standard.

California fuel prices are more volatile than in other states. Because of the state’s regulations on fuel production, there have been limited and in some years no alternative sources for compliant fuels and blending components, essentially isolating the state from all other fuel markets. Any disruptions at the state’s refineries—which have been more likely during the biannual refinery changeovers between the winter and summer fuel formulations—have often led to supply disruptions and consequent price increases.

Fuel costs are based on annual vehicle miles traveled using data from the 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Surveys under US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. The estimates come from average vehicle miles traveled per driver by tenure (owner occupied and renter occupied) and income class by state, and then are applied to the average household income by tenure estimated for each state. In cases where the miles data point is not available or a clear outlier, the state-wide average was used instead. The 2009 Survey is used for 2005-2012 to reach the mid point between the two survey periods. The 2017 results are used for 2013 to the most current year.

Using two drivers per household and the assumption that the second vehicle is driven half as much as the first, total number of gallons of gasoline annually were calculated using the national average of fuel efficiency for existing US light duty vehicles from US Department of Transportation. This data generally has a three-year lag, and updates to the most recent year were based on the average value of the two most recent available years, an approach which currently reflects the growing consumer preference for light trucks that accelerated after 2016. While California is the only state with a significant component of zero emission vehicles in its fleet, no adjustments have yet been made due to: (1) low overall penetration to date into the total California fleet, (2) results of studies indicating that many of the battery electric vehicles continue to be driven primarily as other than the main commuting vehicle, and (3) two-thirds of “zero emission vehicles” sold in the state to date are actually combustion-electric hybrids. This factor will be revisited as appropriate in future updates.

Total annual fuel costs were then calculated using the average annual price per gallon for each state from GasBuddy.com data, adjusted to be net of applicable federal, state, and local taxes.

Affordability: Transportation – Insurance (Homeowners)

Source: Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports

The factors going into insurance costs varies widely by state. Regulation of prices and the price factors insurance providers are able to consider is also different in every case.

Vehicle Insurance costs are developed from data obtained from Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports (https://www.thezebra.com/), using the average rates published for each state and for the California geographies, averages based on the Zebra zip code data weighted by population. The costs assume two vehicles per household, with a 20% multiple vehicle discount for the second one. Data is available through the current year. However, the data is only available beginning in 2011, and transportation costs calculated in the years prior to that include only the fuel cost component.

Affordability: Transportation – Insurance (Renters)

Source: Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports

The factors going into insurance costs varies widely by state. Regulation of prices and the price factors insurance providers are able to consider is also different in every case.

Vehicle Insurance costs are developed from data obtained from Zebra’s State of Auto Insurance Reports (https://www.thezebra.com/), using the average rates published for each state and for the California geographies, averages based on the Zebra zip code data weighted by population. The costs assume two vehicles per household, with a 20% multiple vehicle discount for the second one. Data is available through the current year. However, the data is only available beginning in 2011, and transportation costs calculated in the years prior to that include only the fuel cost component.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Total (Homeowners)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report

Tax incidence theory concludes that ultimately, consumers and workers bear the cost of all or most of taxes, both as a result of taxes levied directly on them along with taxes they pay indirectly as business taxes are passed on to them through higher prices, lower wages, or fewer working hours. An awareness that these business costs get passed on to consumers is particularly evident among lower income workers. In surveys done for the Center’s recent Jobs, Poverty and Upward Mobility project, nearly two-thirds of low income Californians agreed that a higher minimum wage would help workers like themselves, but a higher share at three-fourths believed higher minimum wage leads to higher prices.

According to Tax Foundation data, California had the 8th highest state tax collections per capita in 2017, at $3,936 per person or $15,744 for a family of four. In 2016, California also ranked 8th highest for combined state and local tax collections per person at $6,077 per person, or $24,308 for a family of four.

Tax Burden cost in the Index is the sum of taxes and fees paid by household, calculated separately for owner-occupied and renter-occupied households. Federal income, state personal income, and FICA taxes are calculated through the TAXSIM application available through the National Bureau of Economic Research (https://users.nber.org/~taxsim/taxsim27/). Rather than general comparisons based on total tax revenues, this approach allows for detailed consideration of tax brackets, credits, and exemption policies incorporated into the different federal and Sales Tax state tax codes over time. Federal income taxes are included to incorporate the interplay of exemptions for local taxes and mortgage interest. FICA, which does not vary among the states, is included to ensure the indicator assesses the full tax burden on households. The total tax burden also includes property tax, sales tax, and fees and other taxes with the property tax component included in both Housing Cost and Tax Burden. This duplication is netted out in the overall Gap values.

The tax calculations are current through the most recent year, but rely on the estimates as discussed under the individual components as inputs.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Total (Renters)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report

Tax incidence theory concludes that ultimately, consumers and workers bear the cost of all or most of taxes, both as a result of taxes levied directly on them along with taxes they pay indirectly as business taxes are passed on to them through higher prices, lower wages, or fewer working hours. An awareness that these business costs get passed on to consumers is particularly evident among lower income workers. In surveys done for the Center’s recent Jobs, Poverty and Upward Mobility project, nearly two-thirds of low income Californians agreed that a higher minimum wage would help workers like themselves, but a higher share at three-fourths believed higher minimum wage leads to higher prices.

According to Tax Foundation data, California had the 8th highest state tax collections per capita in 2017, at $3,936 per person or $15,744 for a family of four. In 2016, California also ranked 8th highest for combined state and local tax collections per person at $6,077 per person, or $24,308 for a family of four.

Tax Burden cost in the Index is the sum of taxes and fees paid by household, calculated separately for owner-occupied and renter-occupied households. Federal income, state personal income, and FICA taxes are calculated through the TAXSIM application available through the National Bureau of Economic Research (https://users.nber.org/~taxsim/taxsim27/). Rather than general comparisons based on total tax revenues, this approach allows for detailed consideration of tax brackets, credits, and exemption policies incorporated into the different federal and Sales Tax state tax codes over time. Federal income taxes are included to incorporate the interplay of exemptions for local taxes and mortgage interest. FICA, which does not vary among the states, is included to ensure the indicator assesses the full tax burden on households. The total tax burden also includes property tax, sales tax, and fees and other taxes with the property tax component included in both Housing Cost and Tax Burden. This duplication is netted out in the overall Gap values.

The tax calculations are current through the most recent year, but rely on the estimates as discussed under the individual components as inputs.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Federal Income Tax (Homeowners)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM.

Federal Personal Income Tax is calculated through TAXSIM. The primary change affecting differences among the states is the federal tax reform components that were effective for the 2018 amounts. These effects vary widely by state, but the results for California can be illustrated by comparing the calculated tax bills for 2017 and 2018 using the assumptions below and the 2018 amounts including keeping income ($133,400 for homeowners in both years and $72,900 for renters) the same. From this comparison, the average owner-occupied household in California saw their federal tax bill drop $1,810 as a result of the federal changes, and the average renter-occupied household saw a drop of $2,180.

The TAXSIM application was run based on the following assumptions to ensure a like-for-like comparison between the states: joint filing by a household composed of two adults aged 30 with two children under 17, average income for owner and renter households taken as the estimate in each jurisdiction, total income coming solely from wages split equally between the two adults, no childcare expenses, mortgage interest for homeowner households estimated by assuming an average mortgage age of 7 years for the amounts shown under Housing Cost, property tax for homeowner households taken from the estimated average property tax for each area, and rent for renter households taken from the estimated average for each area as calculated under the Housing Cost category. These last three components were included to incorporate tax effects from the relevant deductions and to reflect state income tax policies on property tax rebates for renters.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Federal Income Tax (Renters)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM.

Federal Personal Income Tax is calculated through TAXSIM. The primary change affecting differences among the states is the federal tax reform components that were effective for the 2018 amounts. These effects vary widely by state, but the results for California can be illustrated by comparing the calculated tax bills for 2017 and 2018 using the assumptions below and the 2018 amounts including keeping income ($133,400 for homeowners in both years and $72,900 for renters) the same. From this comparison, the average owner-occupied household in California saw their federal tax bill drop $1,810 as a result of the federal changes, and the average renter-occupied household saw a drop of $2,180.

The TAXSIM application was run based on the following assumptions to ensure a like-for-like comparison between the states: joint filing by a household composed of two adults aged 30 with two children under 17, average income for owner and renter households taken as the estimate in each jurisdiction, total income coming solely from wages split equally between the two adults, no childcare expenses, mortgage interest for homeowner households estimated by assuming an average mortgage age of 7 years for the amounts shown under Housing Cost, property tax for homeowner households taken from the estimated average property tax for each area, and rent for renter households taken from the estimated average for each area as calculated under the Housing Cost category. These last three components were included to incorporate tax effects from the relevant deductions and to reflect state income tax policies on property tax rebates for renters.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Fees (Homeowners)

Source: US Federation of Tax Administrators

A growing component of the total tax burden on households comes from fees and other taxes collected by states and a wide array of local governments. At the state level in California, the primary budget focus is always the General Fund which is supported primarily by Personal Income Tax, Sales Tax, Corporation Income Tax, and Insurance Tax. In 2018-19, the General Fund total amounted to $143 billion. But that same year, state fees and special taxes into the Special Funds were about another $63 billion, largely paid directly by households or indirectly as these costs were incorporated into prices for the affected goods and services. Local governments in California have a much higher reliance on similar fees and special taxes for their revenues.

The tax incidence—who actually pays in the end—of these fees and taxes is variable. A number are levied directly on individuals and households, and are paid by them as a result. Others are imposed on businesses, but vary in the extent to which they are then passed on to consumers and workers through higher prices and lower wages, shifted to capital, exported to other states and countries through sale of goods and services, or absorbed through lower profits. In California, some business fees are passed on directly to customers such as the cost of the state’s cap and trade system and fees on tires, mattresses, electronics, containers, and a growing array of other goods presumed to be used for recycling.

No good data exists that could be used to break down this component by how much is paid directly by households vs. what is levied on business in every state. Consequently, this component takes a conservative approach that the total amount is levied on business. The amount passed onto workers and consumers through lower wages and higher prices is then estimated using the general share of existing business taxes shifted to labor and prices from a 2010 business tax incidence study prepared for US Federation of Tax Administrators.

Fees & Other Taxes per household is calculated using the Other Taxes and Other Current Charges revenues reported in the US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments. Because these categories include gross revenue taxes levied by some states such as Texas and various cities to replace or supplement corporation income tax, Corporation Income Tax is included in this amount as well to provide a consistent comparison. The total is then adjusted for tax incidence as above and divided by the total number of households in each geographic area.

These amounts do not include proceeds from and public enterprise user charges such as parking fees and utility fees. They also do not include all business income taxes as fewer businesses are now organized as corporations, but instead as forms such as LLCs, partnerships, and sole proprietorships that are taxed on a pass-through basis under personal income tax. For example, in the latest data from the California Franchise Tax Board, those corporations reporting a profit in 2016 paid a total of $9.3 billion in income tax. The other business forms—as reported through business income, rents and royalties, partnerships and S-Corporations, and farms—paid an estimated net total of $17.4 billion through personal income taxes. Because data is not readily available for all the other states, this much larger component is not included.

The total amount of this component can also vary by where a household is located or where purchases are made within a state as the local level of fees and other charges can vary widely by state, county, city, and in some cases neighborhood as well.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis by dividing the applicable fiscal year amounts by two. The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports. The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

There is also some overlap between this component and the other Index categories. Some portion of fees and other taxes is already incorporated into Food (primary Food Away from Home), Housing, Healthcare, and Transportation. While these sectors do not constitute the full amounts paid, the overlap is significant enough that this component is adjusted from the total amounts used for the Gap calculations. This element is retained in the Tax portion of the Index to illustrate the total cost of taxes to the average household in each area.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Fees (Renters)

Source: US Federation of Tax Administrators

A growing component of the total tax burden on households comes from fees and other taxes collected by states and a wide array of local governments. At the state level in California, the primary budget focus is always the General Fund which is supported primarily by Personal Income Tax, Sales Tax, Corporation Income Tax, and Insurance Tax. In 2018-19, the General Fund total amounted to $143 billion. But that same year, state fees and special taxes into the Special Funds were about another $63 billion, largely paid directly by households or indirectly as these costs were incorporated into prices for the affected goods and services. Local governments in California have a much higher reliance on similar fees and special taxes for their revenues.

The tax incidence—who actually pays in the end—of these fees and taxes is variable. A number are levied directly on individuals and households, and are paid by them as a result. Others are imposed on businesses, but vary in the extent to which they are then passed on to consumers and workers through higher prices and lower wages, shifted to capital, exported to other states and countries through sale of goods and services, or absorbed through lower profits. In California, some business fees are passed on directly to customers such as the cost of the state’s cap and trade system and fees on tires, mattresses, electronics, containers, and a growing array of other goods presumed to be used for recycling.

No good data exists that could be used to break down this component by how much is paid directly by households vs. what is levied on business in every state. Consequently, this component takes a conservative approach that the total amount is levied on business. The amount passed onto workers and consumers through lower wages and higher prices is then estimated using the general share of existing business taxes shifted to labor and prices from a 2010 business tax incidence study prepared for US Federation of Tax Administrators.

Fees & Other Taxes per household is calculated using the Other Taxes and Other Current Charges revenues reported in the US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments. Because these categories include gross revenue taxes levied by some states such as Texas and various cities to replace or supplement corporation income tax, Corporation Income Tax is included in this amount as well to provide a consistent comparison. The total is then adjusted for tax incidence as above and divided by the total number of households in each geographic area.

These amounts do not include proceeds from and public enterprise user charges such as parking fees and utility fees. They also do not include all business income taxes as fewer businesses are now organized as corporations, but instead as forms such as LLCs, partnerships, and sole proprietorships that are taxed on a pass-through basis under personal income tax. For example, in the latest data from the California Franchise Tax Board, those corporations reporting a profit in 2016 paid a total of $9.3 billion in income tax. The other business forms—as reported through business income, rents and royalties, partnerships and S-Corporations, and farms—paid an estimated net total of $17.4 billion through personal income taxes. Because data is not readily available for all the other states, this much larger component is not included.

The total amount of this component can also vary by where a household is located or where purchases are made within a state as the local level of fees and other charges can vary widely by state, county, city, and in some cases neighborhood as well.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis by dividing the applicable fiscal year amounts by two. The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports. The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

There is also some overlap between this component and the other Index categories. Some portion of fees and other taxes is already incorporated into Food (primary Food Away from Home), Housing, Healthcare, and Transportation. While these sectors do not constitute the full amounts paid, the overlap is significant enough that this component is adjusted from the total amounts used for the Gap calculations. This element is retained in the Tax portion of the Index to illustrate the total cost of taxes to the average household in each area.

Affordability: Tax Burden – FICA Payroll Taxes (Homeowners)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM

FICA payroll taxes for Social Security and Medicare are calculated through TAXSIM using the assumptions described under Federal Personal Income Tax. Although not incorporated into the Index, employers pay an equal amount which forms a portion of total compensation paid as retirement benefits rather than directly as wages. Self-employed pay both the worker and employer shares, but are able to deduct the “employer” portion from their taxes to gain a partial offset.

Other state-specific payroll taxes such as California’s Unemployment Insurance (UI) Tax, Employment Training Tax (ETT), and State Disability Insurance (SDI) Tax are not included. These vary widely among the states, both in terms of tax rates and the income base to which they are applied

Affordability: Tax Burden – FICA Payroll Taxes (Renters)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM

FICA payroll taxes for Social Security and Medicare are calculated through TAXSIM using the assumptions described under Federal Personal Income Tax. Although not incorporated into the Index, employers pay an equal amount which forms a portion of total compensation paid as retirement benefits rather than directly as wages. Self-employed pay both the worker and employer shares, but are able to deduct the “employer” portion from their taxes to gain a partial offset.

Other state-specific payroll taxes such as California’s Unemployment Insurance (UI) Tax, Employment Training Tax (ETT), and State Disability Insurance (SDI) Tax are not included. These vary widely among the states, both in terms of tax rates and the income base to which they are applied

Affordability: Tax Burden – Property Tax (Homeowners)

Source: American Community Survey PUMS

Average household Property Tax is calculated for each income band both from the American Community Survey tabulations and from the related PUMS data using the University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. The smaller county numbers are the averages from the encompassing Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMA). The legislative district estimates are an average of the component counties, weighted by owner households within each county portion.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag. The most recent year numbers are estimated using the average growth rate over the prior two years.

The data used in this element is based on self-reported tax amounts from the survey respondents. Consequently, the amounts are likely the totals shown on the annual tax bills rather than just the amounts from the general property tax rate that is normally used in property tax comparisons. These bills in California include other local taxes on property including rates for voter-approved general obligation bonds, parcel taxes, and Mello-Roos rates. As such, this data incorporates all taxes on property rather than just the general rate information typically used from the Board of Equalization.

While the property tax component does not apply directly to renter occupied households, this tax on residential rental property is reflected in the average rents as an element of the cost of providing this type of housing.

Property Tax is also included under the Tax Burden category. The duplicative value for the homeowner’s portion is netted out in the totals used in the Gap calculations.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Property Tax (Renters)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance

Average household Property Tax is calculated for each income band both from the American Community Survey tabulations and from the related PUMS data using the University of California, Berkeley SDA program available through IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org. The smaller county numbers are the averages from the encompassing Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMA). The legislative district estimates are an average of the component counties, weighted by owner households within each county portion.

The American Community Survey data is generally available with a 2-year lag. The most recent year numbers are estimated using the average growth rate over the prior two years.

The data used in this element is based on self-reported tax amounts from the survey respondents. Consequently, the amounts are likely the totals shown on the annual tax bills rather than just the amounts from the general property tax rate that is normally used in property tax comparisons. These bills in California include other local taxes on property including rates for voter-approved general obligation bonds, parcel taxes, and Mello-Roos rates. As such, this data incorporates all taxes on property rather than just the general rate information typically used from the Board of Equalization.

While the property tax component does not apply directly to renter occupied households, this tax on residential rental property is reflected in the average rents as an element of the cost of providing this type of housing.

Property Tax is also included under the Tax Burden category. The duplicative value for the homeowner’s portion is netted out in the totals used in the Gap calculations.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Sales Tax (Homeowners)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance

According to Tax Foundation data, California has the highest state general tax rate at 7.25%. Including the average of local add-ons, California has the 9th highest combined state-local average tax rate of 8.56%.

Sales tax practices, however, also vary widely by state—including 5 states that have no sales tax—with a different array of goods and services subject to sales tax in each location with items such as food being treated as taxable depending on how and where they are offered by sale. Ranked by per capita sales tax collected, California ranks 29th.

Sales Tax per household is calculated using the General Sales Tax revenues reported in the annual US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments, divided by the total number of households in each geographic area.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis through a running average of the two applicable fiscal years. The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports. The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

Not all sales tax is paid directly by households, with businesses also paying tax on some purchases as well. Which sales are taxable and what portion is paid directly by households varies widely state to state, but tax incidence theory indicates that consumers end up paying the full amount—both directly as they buy taxable goods and services and indirectly as the amount paid by businesses on intermediate goods and services is embedded in the final product. However, at least a portion of the indirect amount is shifted out of state through sales to other states and countries. While the results will differ by state and year, a general adjustment factor was developed using 2017 data for California. The portion of these taxes exported through out of state sales was estimated using estimates of the state’s good and services exports in 2014 compared to total state GDP.

The total amount of annual sales tax paid can also vary by where a household is located or where purchases are made within a state as local add-on rates may be different. As of April 2019, total sales tax rates in California ranged from 7.25% to 10.50%. The state average, however, is used for all areas within the state.

There is also some overlap between this component and the other Index categories. Some portion of sales tax is already incorporated into Food (primarily Food Away from Home), Transportation, and Healthcare. While these sectors do not constitute the full amounts paid, the overlap is significant enough that this component is adjusted from the total amounts used for the Gap calculations. This element is retained in the Tax portion of the Index to illustrate the total cost of taxes to the average household in each area.

Affordability: Tax Burden – Sales Tax (Renters)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance

According to Tax Foundation data, California has the highest state general tax rate at 7.25%. Including the average of local add-ons, California has the 9th highest combined state-local average tax rate of 8.56%.

Sales tax practices, however, also vary widely by state—including 5 states that have no sales tax—with a different array of goods and services subject to sales tax in each location with items such as food being treated as taxable depending on how and where they are offered by sale. Ranked by per capita sales tax collected, California ranks 29th.

Sales Tax per household is calculated using the General Sales Tax revenues reported in the annual US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments, divided by the total number of households in each geographic area.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis through a running average of the two applicable fiscal years. The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports. The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

Not all sales tax is paid directly by households, with businesses also paying tax on some purchases as well. Which sales are taxable and what portion is paid directly by households varies widely state to state, but tax incidence theory indicates that consumers end up paying the full amount—both directly as they buy taxable goods and services and indirectly as the amount paid by businesses on intermediate goods and services is embedded in the final product. However, at least a portion of the indirect amount is shifted out of state through sales to other states and countries. While the results will differ by state and year, a general adjustment factor was developed using 2017 data for California. The portion of these taxes exported through out of state sales was estimated using estimates of the state’s good and services exports in 2014 compared to total state GDP.

The total amount of annual sales tax paid can also vary by where a household is located or where purchases are made within a state as local add-on rates may be different. As of April 2019, total sales tax rates in California ranged from 7.25% to 10.50%. The state average, however, is used for all areas within the state.

There is also some overlap between this component and the other Index categories. Some portion of sales tax is already incorporated into Food (primarily Food Away from Home), Transportation, and Healthcare. While these sectors do not constitute the full amounts paid, the overlap is significant enough that this component is adjusted from the total amounts used for the Gap calculations. This element is retained in the Tax portion of the Index to illustrate the total cost of taxes to the average household in each area.

Affordability: Tax Burden – State Income Tax (Homeowners)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM

According to Tax Foundation data, California has the highest state personal income tax rate at 13.3%, while seven states do not impose this tax. The steeply progressive nature of California’s tax system, however, affects the results at different income levels if ranking is instead done by the amount of state tax paid.

State Personal Income Tax is calculated through TAXSIM using the assumptions described under Federal Income Tax.

Affordability: Tax Burden – State Income Tax (Renters)

Source: NBER, TAXSIM

According to Tax Foundation data, California has the highest state personal income tax rate at 13.3%, while seven states do not impose this tax. The steeply progressive nature of California’s tax system, however, affects the results at different income levels if ranking is instead done by the amount of state tax paid.

State Personal Income Tax is calculated through TAXSIM using the assumptions described under Federal Income Tax.

Affordability: Taxes – Motor Vehicle Licenses (Homeowners)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report

Motor Vehicle Licenses per household is calculated using the reported revenues in the US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments, divided by the total number of households in each geography. To estimate the portion paid by households rather than businesses, the totals are adjusted based on the share of commercial vs. other vehicles in California.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis by dividing the applicable fiscal year amounts by two.The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports. The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

This component is included under both Tax Burden and Transportation. The Tax Burden portion is netted out in the Total Necessities Costs and Cost Burden calculations to remove the duplication.

Affordability: Taxes – Motor Vehicle Licenses (Renters)

Source: US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report

Motor Vehicle Licenses per household is calculated using the reported revenues in the US Census Bureau State & Local Government Finance report, total for both state and local governments, divided by the total number of households in each geography. To estimate the portion paid by households rather than businesses, the totals are adjusted based on the share of commercial vs. other vehicles in California.

The Census data is available by fiscal year, and is transformed into a calendar year basis by dividing the applicable fiscal year amounts by two. The information also is generally available with a 3-year lag. The estimates are updated in the first year using the growth rate in the applicable state-only portion available in the related Census Annual Survey of State Government reports.The remaining two years are estimated using a conservative estimate that total revenues grow at the same rate as inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index.

This component is included under both Tax Burden and Transportation. The Tax Burden portion is netted out in the Total Necessities Costs and Cost Burden calculations to remove the duplication.

Affordability: Healthcare – Total (Homeowners)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

In 2017 in California, the American Community Survey shows 53.7% of the population had coverage through their employer, 16.6% Medicare or VA, 26.6% Medi-Cal and other means tested coverage, 12.6% by direct purchase private coverage (of which about a quarter was Medicare supplemental), and 7.2% were uninsured due to a variety of factors including job transitioning, employer insurance vesting periods, cost/benefit considerations (especially for younger adults), overall cost, and immigration status. Note that these percentages are for persons covered alone or in combination by the various insurance sources and add to more than 100%.

The actual amount paid annually for healthcare will vary depending on the source of healthcare coverage.In the case of employer coverage, households generally pay only a portion if any of the amount out of pocket, but in essence cover the entire amount as health benefits are one of the primary components of total compensation, with this benefit being provided in lieu of a portion of wages beginning in California during World War II. Coverage of other types vary widely on out-of-pocket costs and the extent to which each type represents an addition to total household income as a government transfer payment.Payments for Medicare are dependent on income level and plan type. Private insurance purchased through Covered California varies by income and the availability of tax credits. Self-employed generally are eligible for tax deductions for family insurance coverage. Finally, co-pays and annual deductibles vary widely by plan and by state, with a general trade-off between the plan cost and the amount of the deductible. This variability, however, is captured by using average out-of-pocket costs.

The Healthcare cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually by households for health insurance, medical services (including co-pays and deductibles), prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and medical supplies. Data is from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to Healthcare by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Medical Care component of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division.

The use of Consumer Expenditure Survey data produces results that are more variable over time, similar to those for the Food component of the Index. While factors affecting out-of-pocket healthcare expenses also are highly variable over time, the same data smoothing methods as for Food were used to provide more consistent results across time and geographies.

Affordability: Healthcare – Total (Renters)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

In 2017 in California, the American Community Survey shows 53.7% of the population had coverage through their employer, 16.6% Medicare or VA, 26.6% Medi-Cal and other means tested coverage, 12.6% by direct purchase private coverage (of which about a quarter was Medicare supplemental), and 7.2% were uninsured due to a variety of factors including job transitioning, employer insurance vesting periods, cost/benefit considerations (especially for younger adults), overall cost, and immigration status. Note that these percentages are for persons covered alone or in combination by the various insurance sources and add to more than 100%.

The actual amount paid annually for healthcare will vary depending on the source of healthcare coverage.In the case of employer coverage, households generally pay only a portion if any of the amount out of pocket, but in essence cover the entire amount as health benefits are one of the primary components of total compensation, with this benefit being provided in lieu of a portion of wages beginning in California during World War II. Coverage of other types vary widely on out-of-pocket costs and the extent to which each type represents an addition to total household income as a government transfer payment.Payments for Medicare are dependent on income level and plan type. Private insurance purchased through Covered California varies by income and the availability of tax credits. Self-employed generally are eligible for tax deductions for family insurance coverage. Finally, co-pays and annual deductibles vary widely by plan and by state, with a general trade-off between the plan cost and the amount of the deductible. This variability, however, is captured by using average out-of-pocket costs.

The Healthcare cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually by households for health insurance, medical services (including co-pays and deductibles), prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and medical supplies. Data is from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to Healthcare by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Medical Care component of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division.

The use of Consumer Expenditure Survey data produces results that are more variable over time, similar to those for the Food component of the Index. While factors affecting out-of-pocket healthcare expenses also are highly variable over time, the same data smoothing methods as for Food were used to provide more consistent results across time and geographies.

Affordability: Food – Total (Homeowners)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Affordability: Food – Total (Renters)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Affordability: Food – At Home (Homeowners)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Affordability: Food – At Home (Renters)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Affordability: Food – Away from Home (Homeowners)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Affordability: Food – Away from Home (Renters)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Prices for food prepared at home—such as food bought at grocery stores—in general have been stable or in some cases declined in recent years in California and other parts of the country. Prices for food prepared away from home—such as take-out and restaurant food—in contrast have grown rapidly as a result of higher costs for labor, taxes and fees, rent, energy, and other non-food components that go into preparing these products for sale to consumers.Food away from home, however, has become a growing component of the food budget for those consumers, especially lower income consumers, who now spend increasing portions of their day commuting as they have been forced further away from job centers in the search for housing they can afford.

The Food cost category in the Index is the total of the amount paid annually for food prepared at home and for take-out/restaurant food prepared away from home. Data is taken from US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, using the percentage of income before taxes allocated to each food component by income group adjusted to a four-person household. Data for each state is taken from the applicable geographic Division region (Northeast, South, Midwest, West).

The core data is generally available with a two-year lag. The most recent year estimates were calculated using the Food at Home and Food Away from Home components of the consumer price index for each applicable region Division, and for California geographies using the comparable indicators for California available in the Center’s Indicators.

Use of this data source produced data results that are far more variable than in the other components of the Index, in particular for states in the South, the smaller geographies, and for geographies where the average income is close to an income band endpoint rather than in the center. Results using the most recent year surveys, however, are more consistent.Data smoothing tools including use of 5-year averages were used to produce consistent results overall.

Housing: Percent Cost Burdened (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 30% or more of total income.

Data is for percentage of units where the ratio can be calculated. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Severely Cost Burdened (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 50% or more of total income.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Avg. Annual Wage: Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage. Average weekly wage is a combination of the hourly wage rate and the average number of hours worked in each industry. The 2002 version of NAICS is used for 1990 to 2006, 2007 version for 2007 to 2011, and 2012 version for 2012 and later. Comparisons across these periods should take these changes into account.

Employment and wage data does not include proprietors, self-employed in an unincorporated business or practice, unpaid family members, certain farm and domestic workers, jobs held by those not working because of a labor-management dispute. Quarterly data subject to revision in the annual updates. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/cew/releasecalendar.htm

https://www.bls.gov/cew/datatoc.htm

Gasoline per Gallon

Source: GasBuddy

Gasoline prices are shown as the monthly average, dollars per gallon (including taxes) for Regular Gasoline. Monthly data is reported on or around the 5th of the following month.

www.GasBuddy.com.   GasBuddy’s gasoline price data is a collection of prices reported by its users via the GasBuddy website, the GasBuddy mobile apps, credit card (fleet card) transactions, and directly from gas stations. Since the prices on GasBuddy.com are input by individual users, no guarantees are made in regard to the accuracy of the inputted price, station name, station location, or other user dependent variables. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LL. shall have the right to, but not the obligation, to monitor, change, or remove any of the site content or information without notice at any time. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LLC shall not be held liable, regardless of the cause or duration, for any errors, inaccuracies, omissions, untimeliness, unauthenticated information, or other defects in the information or content within the website or associated tools (e.g., GasBuddy Price Tool).

Home Price +/- CA Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average California home price.  This index shows the relative cost of homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) in the different geographic areas of the state. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Hourly Earnings: Total Private

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Data is from monthly surveys covering about one-third of total nonfarm employment.  Data covers the gross hourly wage (basic pay plus other components such as incentive pay and overtime but not including benefits, irregular bonuses, and payroll taxes) of all persons on payroll, but does not include proprietors, unincorporated self-employed, volunteer or unpaid family workers, farm employees, domestic employees, non-civilian government, and employees of intelligence services.  Regional averages are calculated from the available data.

Construction data for Delaware, DC, and Hawaii includes both construction and mining and logging.  Current month data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month.  All data subject to revision in the annual updates.  Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/sae/790sced.htm

https://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/sm/, https://www.bls.gov/ces/

Housing: Percent Cost Burdened (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 30% or more of total income.

Data is for percentage of units where the ratio can be calculated. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Home Price +/- US Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average US home price.  This index shows the relative cost of California homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) compared to the US average. Data for the US is from the US Census Bureau. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Housing: Percent Severely Cost Burdened (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 50% or more of total income.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Average Residential Electricity Bill

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Average electricity bill is calculated from total sales and total customers for the residential end user sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, the monthly entries are derived from a 12-month moving total.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Zillow Home Value Index: Single Family Homes

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of single family homes. (ZHVI), Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all homes within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Zillow Home Value Index: Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of multi-family residential units. (ZHVI) Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Median Price: Existing SFR Detached Homes

Source: California Association of Realtors, Median Prices of Existing Detached Homes

Median sales price for existing single family homes. https://www.car.org/en/marketdata/data/countysalesactivity

Value is from the final escrow price of actual sales.

Electricity Price Residential

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the residential end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Natural Gas Price Residential

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to industrial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Zillow Rent Index: Mulitfamily, SFR, Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of rent for all housing units. (ZRI) Summary: Multifamily, SFR,Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value. Value is based on actual rents and estimated rents for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of units actually rented.

Energy

Electricity Use per Household

Diesel per Gallon

Source: GasBuddy

Diesel prices are shown as the monthly average, dollars per gallon (including taxes) for all grades. Monthly data is reported on or around the 5th of the following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions. www.GasBuddy.com

GasBuddy’s gasoline price data is a collection of prices reported by its users via the GasBuddy website, the GasBuddy mobile apps, credit card (fleet card) transactions, and directly from gas stations. Since the prices on GasBuddy.com are input by individual users, no guarantees are made in regard to the accuracy of the inputted price, station name, station location, or other user dependent variables. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LL. shall have the right to, but not the obligation, to monitor, change, or remove any of the site content or information without notice at any time. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LLC shall not be held liable, regardless of the cause or duration, for any errors, inaccuracies, omissions, untimeliness, unauthenticated information, or other defects in the information or content within the website or associated tools (e.g., GasBuddy Price Tool).

Gasoline per Gallon

Source: GasBuddy

Gasoline prices are shown as the monthly average, dollars per gallon (including taxes) for Regular Gasoline. Monthly data is reported on or around the 5th of the following month.

www.GasBuddy.com.   GasBuddy’s gasoline price data is a collection of prices reported by its users via the GasBuddy website, the GasBuddy mobile apps, credit card (fleet card) transactions, and directly from gas stations. Since the prices on GasBuddy.com are input by individual users, no guarantees are made in regard to the accuracy of the inputted price, station name, station location, or other user dependent variables. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LL. shall have the right to, but not the obligation, to monitor, change, or remove any of the site content or information without notice at any time. GasBuddy.com, GasPriceData.com and/or GasBuddy/OpenStore LLC shall not be held liable, regardless of the cause or duration, for any errors, inaccuracies, omissions, untimeliness, unauthenticated information, or other defects in the information or content within the website or associated tools (e.g., GasBuddy Price Tool).

Average Residential Electricity Bill

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Average electricity bill is calculated from total sales and total customers for the residential end user sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, the monthly entries are derived from a 12-month moving total.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Electricity Price Commercial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Electricity Price Industrial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the industrial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Electricity Price Residential

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Electricity prices are shown as the average price in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for all electric industry providers for the residential end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average.

Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month.  Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia861m/index.html

Natural Gas Price Commercial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Natural Gas Price Industrial

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to commercial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Natural Gas Price Residential

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Natural gas prices are shown as the average price in dollars per thousand cubic feet (tcf) for all natural gas delivered to industrial end-use sector. To provide a consistent comparison basis, prices are shown as a 12-month moving average. Monthly data is updated on or around the 5th of the 3rd following month. Monthly data is subject to annual revisions.

https://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/monthly/

Energy Production: Non-CO2

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Share of electricity generation from renewable and sources producing no carbon dioxide emissions:  geothermal, solar, wind, wood and wood derived fuel, other biomass, conventional hydroelectric, nuclear, and net production from pumped storage.

Data generally update Oct/Nov.  Data based on generation within each state and does not include imports from other states.  For example, in 2016, California imported 32% of its electricity, of which only one-third was from identifiable non-CO2 producing sources.  This generation is assigned to the states in which it was produced and not applied to California’s total.

Energy Production: Solar & Wind

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Total electricity generation (thousand megawatt-hours) from utility-scale solar and wind. Preliminary data available monthly, with final annual data generally having a 2-year lag. Data based on generation within each state and does not include imports from other states. Currently, distributed generation (i.e., thermal and photovoltaic solar panels) is only in the monthly data beginning 2015.

Energy Related CO2 Emissions: Total

Source: US Energy Information Administration

Total CO2 emissions cover direct fuel use across all sectors along with fuels used for electric generation allocated based on the location where fuels are consumed. For feedstock applications such as plastics, carbon stored in products is subtracted from emissions in the states where they are produced. Biomass is treated as carbon neutral. The data covers over 80% of total CO2 emissions in the US.

Counts emissions based on where energy is used.  For example, California imported about a third of its electricity in 2016, but the associated emissions are counted in the state of production rather than California.

Labor Force

Age Share: 25-54 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within total population.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the population age 16 and over

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 65+ (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Age 65+ (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Men (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Men (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Women (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Women (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within the population age 16 and over.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Employed Share: Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed of Latino ethnicity.

Employed Share: Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed of Latino ethnicity.

Employed Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

Employed Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

Employed Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed who are White, Non-Latino.

Employed Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed who are White, Non-Latino.

Employed Share: Asian (ACS 1yr)

Share of total number of employed, Asian or Pacific Islander.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Employed Share: White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed, White.

Employed Share: Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed, Black or African-American.

Employed Share: Other (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed, all other races including unknown.

Labor Force Share: Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force of Latino ethnicity.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force who are White, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Asian (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, Asian or Pacific Islander.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, Black or African-American.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Other (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, all other races including unknown.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, White.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older of Latino ethnicity.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older who are White, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Asian (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, Asian or Pacific Islander.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, Black or African-American.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, White.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Other (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, all other races including unknown.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 25-64 Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: Below High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: High School Diploma (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: Some College (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Unemployed Share: Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed of Latino ethnicity.

Unemployed Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

Unemployed Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed who are White, Non-Latino.

Unemployed Share: Asian (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, Asian or Pacific Islander.

Unemployed Share: White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, White.

Unemployed Share: Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, Black or African-American.

Unemployed Share: Other (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, all other races including unknown.

Employed Share: White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of employed, White.

Labor Force Share: Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force of Latino ethnicity.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force who are White, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Asian (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, Asian or Pacific Islander.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Black (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, Black or African-American.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Other (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, all other races including unknown.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of labor force, White.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Unemployed Share: Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed of Latino ethnicity.

Unemployed Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

Unemployed Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed who are White, Non-Latino.

Unemployed Share: Asian (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, Asian or Pacific Islander.

Unemployed Share: Black (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, Black or African-American.

Unemployed Share: Other (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, all other races including unknown.

Unemployed Share: White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of total number of unemployed, White.

Population 16 and Over Share: Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older of Latino ethnicity.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Other-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older of all other races including unknown, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: White-Non Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older who are White, Non-Latino.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Asian (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, Asian or Pacific Islander.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Black (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, Black or African-American.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: Other (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, all other races including unknown.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 16 and Over Share: White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Share of working age population 16 and older, White.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Population 25-64 Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: Below High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: High School Diploma (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Population 25-64 Share: Some College (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of working age population 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Employed (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Includes all individuals who worked at least one hour for a wage or salary, self-employed, or working at least 15 unpaid hours in a family business or on a family farm. Those who on vacation, on other kinds of leave, or involved in a labor dispute, are also counted as employed. Seasonally adjusted.

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month.  Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule:  https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

JOLTS: Job Openings Rate

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Job Openings covers all Nonfarm job vacancies remaining at the end of each month, excluding those that will be filled internally, through layoff recalls, or means such as temp agencies or contractors. The rate is calculated by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of Nonfarm employment and Job Openings for each month.

JOLTS: Hiring Rate

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Job Hires covers the number of hires at any time within a month regardless of work status, excluding those filled internally, through layoff recalls, or means such as temp agencies or contractors. Job Hiring Rate is calculated by dividing the number of Job Hires by Nonfarm employment for each month.

JOLTS: Quit Rate

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Job Quits are voluntary separations at any time within a month regardless of work status, excluding those as a result of internal shifts, layoff recalls, or means such as temp agencies or contractors. Job Quits Rate is calculated by dividing the number of Job Quits by Nonfarm employment for each month.

JOLTS: Layoffs & Discharges Rate

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Job Layoffs & Discharges are involuntary separations at any time within a month regardless of work status, excluding those as a result of internal shifts, layoff recalls, or means such as temp agencies or contractors. Job Layoffs & Discharges Rate is calculated by dividing the number of Job Layoffs & Discharges by Nonfarm employment for each month.

JOLTS: Total Separations Rate

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Total Job Separations cover Quits, Layoffs & Discharges, and Other Separations as a result of retirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and disability. Jobs Total Separations Rate is calculated by dividing the number of Job Total Separations by Nonfarm employment for each month.

JOLTS: Number of Unemployed per Job Opening

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/jlt/jlt_statedata.htm

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) provides indicators of the underlying dynamics in the labor market, including the extent to which the state economies are moving towards a labor surplus (recession) or labor/skills shortage. Number of Unemployed per Job Opening is calculated by dividing the 3-month moving average of the total number of unemployed (seasonally adjusted) by total number of Job Openings in each month.

Employed (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Includes all individuals who worked at least one hour for a wage or salary, self-employed, or working at least 15 unpaid hours in a family business or on a family farm.  Those who on vacation, on other kinds of leave, or involved in a labor dispute, are also counted as employed. Not seasonally adjusted.

Employed Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Asian (ACS 5yr)

Employed Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

Employed Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

Employed Share: Below High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Employed Share: Below High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Employed Share: High School Diploma (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

Employed Share: High School Diploma (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

Employed Share: Men (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Some College (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Employed Share: Some College (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of employed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Employed Share: Women (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Labor Force (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes. Not seasonally adjusted.

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data-release-schedule.html

http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data/unemployment-and-labor-force.html

Labor Force (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes. Seasonally adjusted.

https://www.bls.gov/cps/, https://www.bls.gov/lau/

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Labor Force Participation Rate (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

The number within the Labor Force as a percentage of the total Noninstitutional Civilian Population.  Data for areas below the state level other than for Los Angeles County are calculated from the estimated population age 16 and over, adjusted for the non-civilian component based on the state average.  Not seasonally adjusted.

Labor Force Participation Rate (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

The number within the Labor Force as a percentage of the total Noninstitutional Civilian Population. Seasonally adjusted. Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Labor Force Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

Labor Force Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

Labor Force Share: Below High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Labor Force Share: Below High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Labor Force Share: High School Diploma (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: High School Diploma (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Men (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Some College (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Labor Force Share: Some College (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of labor force age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Labor Force Share: Women (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within the civilian labor force.

Unemployed (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Individuals who are not working but are able, available, and actively looking for work.  Individuals who are waiting to be recalled from a layoff, and individuals waiting to report to a new job within 30 days are also considered to be unemployed.  Data for Assembly. Senate, and Congressional Districts are estimated using the LAUS Census Share methodology using data from the 5-year American Community Survey (ACS) estimates.   This approach assumes that the rates of change for employment and unemployment within the larger geographic area are the same as those within the smaller geographic area being estimated.  Not seasonally adjusted.

Unemployed (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Census Bureau

Individuals who are not working but are able, available, and actively looking for work. Individuals who are waiting to be recalled from a layoff, and individuals waiting to report to a new job within 30 days are also considered to be unemployed. Seasonally adjusted. Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Unemployed Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree.

Unemployed Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a BA or graduate/professional degree

Unemployed Share: Below High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Unemployed Share: Below High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of below high school, no diploma.

Unemployed Share: High School Diploma (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

Unemployed Share: High School Diploma (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma, including GED or equivalent.

Unemployed Share: Men (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of men within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Some College (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Unemployed Share: Some College (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey.

Share of total number of unemployed age 25-64 with highest educational attainment of some college including an AA degree.

Unemployed Share: Women (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of women within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployment Rate (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: Employment Development Department

Sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. Civilians are age 16 years or older, not members of the Armed Services, and are not in institutions such as prisons, mental hospitals, or nursing homes.  Not seasonally adjusted.

http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data/unemployment-and-labor-force.html

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/data-release-schedule.html

Unemployment Rate (Seasonally Adjusted)

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

The number of unemployed as a percentage of the Labor Force. Seasonally adjusted.

https://www.bls.gov/cps/, https://www.bls.gov/lau/

Data is preliminary and revised in the subsequent month. Multiple years are subject to change in the annual revisions. Release schedule: https://www.bls.gov/schedule/news_release/laus.htm

Employed Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 5yr)

Employed Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey,

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 65+ (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Employed Share: Age 65+ (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the number of employed, civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the civilian labor force.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

 

Labor Force Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the civilian labor force.

Labor Force Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the civilian labor force.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the civilian labor force.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Age 65+ (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 1-year survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the civilian labor force.

American Community Survey, 1 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Labor Force Share: Age 65+ (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey, 5-year survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the civilian labor force.

American Community Survey, 5 year survey results.

ACS 1-year survey results are not directly comparable with the 5-year results.

Unemployed Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 16-19 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 16-19 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 20-24 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 20-24 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 25-54 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 25-54 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force

Unemployed Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 55-64 (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 55-64 within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 65+ (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Unemployed Share: Age 65+ (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of persons age 65 and over within the number of unemployed, civilian labor force.

Workforce Preparedness

8th Grade Math: Total

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of all 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

8th Grade Math: White

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of white, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

8th Grade Math: Latino

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

8th Grade Math: Black

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Black/African-American, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

8th Grade Math: Asian-Pacific Islander

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

8th Grade Reading: Total

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of all 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Reading: White

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of white, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Reading: Latino

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Reading: Black

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Black/African-American, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Reading: Asian-Pacific Islander

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Science: Total

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of all 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Proficiency is based on the 2009 Science Standards. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Science: White

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of white, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Proficiency is based on the 2009 Science Standards. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Science: Latino

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Proficiency is based on the 2009 Science Standards. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Science: Black

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Black/African-American, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Proficiency is based on the 2009 Science Standards. Regional data is from available state results.

8th Grade Science: Asian-Pacific Islander

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Percent of Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Latino 8th grade students testing at the proficient level or above on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) test.

https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/data_tools.aspx#

Ethnicity/race is from “race used for trends, school reported” categorization. Regional data is from available state results.

STEM Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics

Number of persons employed in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) occupation, as an indicator of high tech employment within each geographic area.

Occupational Employment Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/oes/additional.htm

Data is derived from occupational employment data in each May.

STEM Share of Total Employment

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics

Percentage of total employment employed in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) occupation, as an indicator of high tech employment within each geographic area.

Occupational Employment Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/oes/additional.htm

Data is derived from occupational employment data in each May.

STEM Average Hourly Wage

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics

Average hourly wage of persons employed in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) occupation, as an indicator of high tech employment within each geographic area.

Occupational Employment Statistics, https://www.bls.gov/oes/additional.htm

Data is derived from occupational employment data in each May.

Graduate Students in Engineering/Science: Citizens & Permanent Residents

Source: National Science Foundation

Number of graduate students (citizens and permanent residents) pursuing a degree in engineering or science.  Indicator of high tech workforce development for the state and US economies.

https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome.

Graduate Students in Engineering/Science: Temporary Residents

Source: National Science Foundation

Number of graduate students (temporary residents) pursuing a degree in engineering or science.  Indicator of extent to which geographic area’s higher education institutions are serving an export earnings vs. workforce development role.

https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome

Graduate Students in Engineering/Science: Total

Source: National Science Foundation

Number of all graduate students pursuing a degree in engineering or science.

https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome

Postsecondary Enrollment: White

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics

Fall enrollment of white, non-Latino students in degree-granting institutions (associate’s or higher degree) participating in Title IV federal financial aid programs. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/

Postsecondary Enrollment: Latino

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics

Fall enrollment of Latino students in degree-granting institutions (associate’s or higher degree) participating in Title IV federal financial aid programs. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/

Postsecondary Enrollment: Black

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics

Fall enrollment of Black/African-American, non-Latino students in degree-granting institutions (associate’s or higher degree) participating in Title IV federal financial aid programs. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/

Postsecondary Enrollment: Asian-Pacific Islander

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics

Fall enrollment of Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Latino students in degree-granting institutions (associate’s or higher degree) participating in Title IV federal financial aid programs. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/

K-12 Grade Level: English – English Learners

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of students classified as English Learners in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: English – Socioeconomically Disadvantaged

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of students classified as socially disadvantaged in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – Total

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of all students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

High School Dropout Rate: English Learners

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for students classified as English Learners.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

High School Dropout Rate: Socioeconomically Disadvantaged

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for all students classified as socially disadvantaged.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – English Learners

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of students classified as English Learners in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Total

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Female

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of female high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Male

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of male high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Latino

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of Latino high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: White

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of White, non-Latino high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Asian/PI

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of Asian & Pacific Islander, non-Latino high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: Black

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of Black/African American, non-Latino high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

UC/CSU Eligible Graduates: SDA

Source: California Department of Education

Percentage of socioeconomically disadvantaged high school graduates completing the A-G courses required for application to UC and CSU.

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree.

Age 25+ Share: Bachelor’s or Higher (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree.

Age 25+ Share: Below High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of less than a high school diploma.

Age 25+ Share: Below High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of less than a high school diploma.

Age 25+ Share: Graduate or Professional (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of graduate or professional degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: Graduate or Professional (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of graduate or professional degree.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Age 25+ Share: High School (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma or equivalent (e.g., GED).

Age 25+ Share: High School (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of a high school diploma or equivalent (e.g., GED).

Age 25+ Share: Some College (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of some college but no degree.

Age 25+ Share: Some College (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

For persons age 25 and over, percentage with highest educational attainment of some college but no degree.

High School Dropout Rate: Asian

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for Asian students.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

High School Dropout Rate: Black

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for Black/African-American students.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

High School Dropout Rate: Latino

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for Latino students.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

High School Dropout Rate: Total

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for all students.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

High School Dropout Rate: White

Source: Department of Education

Percent of the class cohort dropping out of school prior to graduation from high school for white students.  Class cohorts are students who entered as freshman during one academic year who are tracked over four years until graduation.

K-12 Grade Level: English – Asian

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Asian students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: English – Black

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Black/African-American students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: English – Latino

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Latino students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: English – Total

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of all students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST). For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System. No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: English – White

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of white students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – Asian

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Asian students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – Black

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Black/African-American students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – Latino

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of Latino students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – Socioeconomically Disadvantaged

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of students classified as socially disadvantaged in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

K-12 Grade Level: Math – White

Source: Department of Education

For years 2013 and prior, percent of white students in grades 2-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the California Standards Test (CST).  For years 2015 and after, comparable metric for students in grades 3-11 testing at the proficient level or above on the Smarter Balanced Assessment System.  No test was given in 2014.

Quality of Life

Housing: Percent Cost Burdened (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 30% or more of total income.

Data is for percentage of units where the ratio can be calculated. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Severely Cost Burdened (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 50% or more of total income.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Public Transit: Unlinked Passenger Miles

Source: US Department of Transportation

Number of persons who board public transportation vehicles, counted each time they board regardless of how many boardings occur while traveling from origin to final destination.

Commuting: Carpooling (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters carpooling as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Carpooling (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters carpooling as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Other (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters walking, biking, or using other means as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Other (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters walking, biking, or using other means as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Public Transit (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters using public transit as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Public Transit (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters using public transit as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Travel Time to Work (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters spending 30 minutes or more commuting (one way).

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Travel Time to Work (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters spending 30 minutes or more commuting (one way).

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Using Single Occupant Vehicle (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters driving alone as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Using Single Occupant Vehicle (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters driving alone as their principal means of commuting.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Work from Home (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters working at home.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Commuting: Work from Home (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of commuters working at home.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Home Price +/- CA Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average California home price.  This index shows the relative cost of homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) in the different geographic areas of the state. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Housing: Percent Cost Burdened (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 30% or more of total income.

Data is for percentage of units where the ratio can be calculated. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units with 1 or more persons per room.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units with 1 or more persons per room.

ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Asian (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Asian-Pacific Islander Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Asian (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Asian-Pacific Islander Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Black/African-American Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Black (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Black/African-American Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Latino Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (Latino Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (White, Non-Latino Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Overcrowded, White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of units (White, Non-Latino Householder) with 1 or more persons per room.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Asian (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Asian/Pacific Islander householder) that are owner-occupied.

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Asian (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Asian/Pacific Islander householder) that are owner-occupied.

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Black (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Black/African-American householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Black (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Black/African-American householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Latino (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Latino householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, Latino (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (Latino householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, White (ACS 1yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (White, Non-Latino householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Housing: Percent Owner-Occupied, White (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percentage of all units (White, Non-Latino householder) that are owner-occupied.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Property Crime Rate

Source: US Department of Justice

Number of reported property crimes per 100,000 population.

Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics, http://www.ucrdatatool.gov/https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s

Reporting coverage may vary in some years for some states.

Property Crime Total

Source: US Department of Justice

Total number of reported property crimes.

Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics, http://www.ucrdatatool.gov/, https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s

Reporting coverage may vary in some years for some states.

Violent Crime Rate

Source: US Department of Justice

Number of reported violent crimes per 100,000 population.

https://openjustice.doj.ca.gov/crime-statistics/. Crime rates are calculated using the most current Department of Finance population data.

Reporting coverage may vary in some years for some states. Due to the potential for much wider variability, crime rates are not typically calculated for the smaller counties, but are included in here for consistency.

Violent Crime Total

Source: US Department of Justice

Total number of reported violent crimes.

https://openjustice.doj.ca.gov/crime-statistics/

Reporting coverage may vary in some years for some states.

Home Price +/- US Avg

Source: US Census Bureau

Ratio of the quarterly average home price to the quarterly average US home price.  This index shows the relative cost of California homes (as percent above (+) or below (-) the US average) compared to the US average. Data for the US is from the US Census Bureau. Data for California, counties, regions, and legislative districts is through a subscription to the DQNews data base. Legislative Districts are estimated using zip code data from DQNews.

Data covers all new and existing, attached and detached single family home sales.

Housing: Percent Severely Cost Burdened (ACS 5yr)

Source: American Community Survey

Percent of rented units paying gross rent that is 50% or more of total income.

Regional data is based on states for which data is available. ACS data is comparable across the same data series: 1-year survey results (data from the year indicated) or 5-year (data compiled from the year indicated and prior 4 years).

Zillow Home Value Index: Single Family Homes

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of single family homes. (ZHVI), Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all homes within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Zillow Home Value Index: Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of multi-family residential units. (ZHVI) Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value.

Value is based on sales prices and estimated sales price for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of homes actually sold.

Median Price: Existing SFR Detached Homes

Source: California Association of Realtors, Median Prices of Existing Detached Homes

Median sales price for existing single family homes. https://www.car.org/en/marketdata/data/countysalesactivity

Value is from the final escrow price of actual sales.

Zillow Rent Index: Mulitfamily, SFR, Condo/Co-ops

Source: Zillow Home Value Index

Median value of rent for all housing units. (ZRI) Summary: Multifamily, SFR,Condo/Co-op, Zillow Data, https://www.zillow.com/research/data/#median-home-value. Value is based on actual rents and estimated rents for all units within the Zillow database. Provides a more consistent median value less affected by changing composition of units actually rented.

Economic Disparity

Number Receiving Social Disability

Source: US Social Security Administration

Number of workers receiving payments from the Social Security Insurance Program (SDI) in December of each year.  Data covers only workers, and not related beneficiaries such as children and spouses.

Data for legislative districts is estimated from the annual zip code. Congressional Districts data is from the SSA estimates for the years covering the current district designations. County and district beneficiaries cover those who can be assigned, and the totals may not equal the state numbers.

Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security Disability Insurance Program, https://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/statcomps/oasdi_sc/index.html.

Unemployment Rate U6

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Alternative measure of labor utilization showing persons who are unemployed (the generally reported unemployment rate) plus all marginally attached worker and, total employed part time for economic reasons, divided by the civilian labor force plus all marginally attached workers.

Published quarterly solely from the Current Population Survey data. The core unemployment numbers, therefore, generally differ from the model-based estimates published monthly.

https://www.bls.gov/lau/stalt.htm

Part Time Employed for Economic Reasons

Source: US Census Bureau

Percent of employed working part time for economic reasons—primarily the lack of full time work—calculated as a running 12-month average.

Data is analyzed consistent with previous US BLS publication, Geographic Profile of Employment & Unemployment.

Current Population Survey data analyzed through US Census Bureau DataFerret.

Part Time Employed

Source: US Census Bureau

Percent of employed usually working part time, calculated as a running 12-month average.

Data is analyzed consistent with previous US BLS publication, Geographic Profile of Employment & Unemployment.

Current Population Survey data analyzed through US Census Bureau DataFerret.

Labor Force Participation Rate Total

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for all persons age 16 and older from the Current Population Survey data, as a benchmark for the demographic labor force data.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Personal Income: Annual

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total annual personal income consisting of income that persons receive in return for their provision of labor, land, and capital used in current production as well as other income, such as personal current transfer receipts.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm.

Per Capita Personal Income: Annual

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Per capita annual personal income.

Data from BEA files. Per capita amounts for other indicators generally calculated using the appropriate population figure.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm

Per Capita Personal Income: Quarterly

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Per capita quarterly personal income.

Data from BEA files. Per capita amounts for other indicators generally calculated using the appropriate population figure.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm.

Personal Income: Quarterly

Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

Total quarterly personal income consisting of income that persons receive in return for their provision of labor, land, and capital used in current production as well as other income, such as personal current transfer receipts.

https://bea.gov/regional/downloadzip.cfm

Number Receiving Food Stamps, County Data

Source: US Department of Commerce

Average number of persons receiving benefits from Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP/food stamps).

Average is determined as of July of each year. Some counties include imputed estimates.

https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/datasets/time-series/model-tables/

Number Receiving Food Stamps, State Data

Source: US Department of Agriculture

Average number of persons receiving benefits from Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP/food stamps).

Annual average calculated from the fiscal year monthly data.

https://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap

Unemployment Rate Total

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for all persons age 16 and older from the Current Population Survey data, as a benchmark for the demographic labor force data.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Poverty Rate: Official

Source: US Census Bureau

Percentage of persons below the official poverty income threshold, which varies by family size and age.

https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/saipe/data/tools.html

Income used to compute poverty status is before taxes and covers only Money Income, including earnings, unemployment compensation, workers’ compensation, Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, public assistance, veterans’ payments, survivor benefits, pension or retirement income, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, income from estates, trusts, educational assistance, alimony, child support, assistance from outside the household, and other miscellaneous sources. The income base does not include noncash benefits such as food stamps and housing subsidies, and does not include capital gains or losses.

Poverty Rate: Supplemental

Source: US Census Bureau

Adjusts the official poverty rate for specified noncash assistance payments and state differences in specified expenses, primarily housing costs. State and regional estimates are 3-year moving averages.

State and regional estimates are 3-year moving averages.

https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/supplemental-poverty-measure.html/

Unemployment Insurance Claims

Source: US Department of Labor

Number of initial claims for unemployment insurance, not seasonally adjusted.

https://oui.doleta.gov/unemploy/5159report.asp; county data from Employment Development Department.

US number is total of states, DC, and Puerto Rico.

Unemployment Rate Youth

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for persons age 16-19.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Age 55-64

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for persons age 55-64.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Over 65

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for persons age 65 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Youth

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for persons age 16-19.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Age 55-64

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for persons age 55-64.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Over 65

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for persons age 65 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Asian

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for Asian, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Black

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for Black/African-American, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Latino

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for Latino, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Asian

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for Asian, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Black

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for Black/African-American, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Latino

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for Latino, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate White

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for White, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate White

Average annual unemployment rate for White, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Married

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for persons who are married with spouse present, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Men

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for Men, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Unmarried

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for persons who are unmarried or married with spouse absent, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Labor Force Participation Rate Women

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual labor force participation rate for Women, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Married

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for persons who are married with spouse present, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Men

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for Men, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Unmarried

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for persons who are unmarried or married with spouse absent, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment Rate Women

Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Average annual unemployment rate for Women, age 16 and over.

Data across race/ethnicity is not additive. Race categories may be of any ethnicity. Latinos may be of any race. Source data is from the Current Population Survey and may differ from the model-based labor force data reported by BLS.

Expanded State Labor force participation Status Demographic Data, https://www.bls.gov/lau/ex14tables.htm.

Unemployment

The number of unemployed as a percentage of the Labor Force. Seasonally adjusted.

Housing Cost

Data is the equivalent annual average wage based on the reported quarterly average weekly wage.

Population, Labor Force and Unemployment

Population is calculated from the annual estimates from Census Bureau as of July 1 of each year.

Labor Force is the sum of civilian employment and civilian unemployment. (Seasonally Adjusted for US data; Not Seasonally Adjusted for CA data)

Unemployment is the number of unemployed as a percentage of the Labor Force. (Seasonally Adjusted for US data; Not Seasonally Adjusted for CA data)

Unemployment Trend

The number of unemployed as a percentage of the Labor Force. (Seasonally Adjusted for US data; Not Seasonally Adjusted for CA data)

Demographics

All data from American Community Survey, 1-year survey for the most current year for US data; 5-year survey for the most current year for California data.  Data for race, ethnicity, age, and gender is for all persons age 16 and over.  Data for educational attainment is for all persons age 25 to 64.  Persons listed by race may be of any ethnicity.  Persons listed by ethnicity may be of any race.  Educational attainment is the highest level of education attained.  High school diploma included GED or equivalent.

Industries

Data from most recent quarter from Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages.  Annual average wage is the equivalent annual wage based on the reported weekly wage.

Additional Resources

Additional resources

Federal Reserve Beige Book